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                                    莫扎特之旅 编译文/图 2020-04-26  20:36

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
  彼得·伊里奇·柴可夫斯基(Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky,1840—1893      
       
 

    柴可夫斯基第六交响曲「悲怆」(卡拉扬指挥柏林爱乐乐团)

     
 

  Tchaikovsky's sixth symphony "pathetique" (karajan conducts the Berlin phil

     
 
     
  音乐历史上的今天

1891年4月26日,柴可夫斯基到达纽约,住进了诺曼底饭店,并开始“在自己的房间上下走动(我有两间房间),潸然泪下”。


美国之旅曾经给柴可夫斯基带来无尽的渴望,然而是什么又让他黯然神伤?就在前不久,柴可夫斯基已经接近成功的峰预。他被邀在美国的六大城市作访问演出。过去,这样的荣誉还没有给过任何一个俄国作曲家。天堂似乎终于对他露出了笑脸。
就在他准备动身去美国的时候,一声霹雳从天而降。娜杰日达·冯·梅克夫人用从来没有用过的语气给他写了一封信,筒简单单地告诉他,她正处于破产的边缘,从今以后,无法再给他任何资助——这对彼得又有什么要紧呢?——而且,他们的亲密关系也必须结束。信的末尾平平常常,毫无感情色彩:“有时候想着我一点儿。”
这封信的语气使柴可夫斯基不知所措,他立刻写了回信。难道她以为,没有了她的资助会对他发生影响吗?他请她别为他的经济情况担心,因为他的收入已经大大增加。可是你信上的最后一句,‘有时候想着我一点儿’却教我痛心……你难道以为我只在用你钱的时候才会想到你吗?你为我所做的一切,你的友谊对我和我的音乐的重要意义,我能有一时一刻加以忘怀吗?”柴可夫斯基怎么也不能理解娜杰日达突然对他冷淡的原因,莫斯科并没有关于梅克家破产的消息,相反的,她家投资的铁路,营业始终兴旺。娜杰日达态度的转变一定有其他原因,只有她自己才知道的原因。“请原谅我的草率,”他在信尾又加了一句。 “我的心情太不平静,无法写得清晰。”
这个打击使他烦恼不安。“她对你和你的音乐感到厌倦了,”一个声音不时在他耳边响起。“现在你已经不再能负起她的雇佣作曲者的任务,她想摆脱你了......。”
柴可夫斯基仍然抱着一线希望,也许有什么误会吧?。她肯定还会给他写一封信解释清楚的。他一天天地等着那封信——始终也没有等到。他乘船到了美国,在一片欢腾声中到达纽约。他成了新世界崇拜的偶像。百万富翁、贵妇、教育家、记者、车夫——全都对他毕恭毕敬。但这是空虚的荣誉。他多么希望用这一切来换取娜杰日达的片纸只字呵。在过去几个月之内;‘他已经苍老了许多。记者们写道,他是个“看上去很有趣的年已花甲的人,”虽然他当时只有五十岁。一在饱尝了美国人的奉承之后,他又匆匆回到莫斯科。仍然得不到娜杰日达的信息。他的信是八个月以前寄出的。最后,来了一封信——不过,不是来自娜杰日达,而是他们的一个朋友写的。 “她病得厉害,她非常不安,不能再象往常那样给你写信了……。”
柴可夫斯基立刻回了信。“我绝不能增加她的痛苦。使我感到痛心、烦恼,或者说,使我深受冒犯的,不是她不给我写信,而是她对我失去了所有的兴趣这个更加令人痛苦的事实……我迫切希望在我不再受到她的资助以后,我和她的关系能一如既往。不幸的是,这一点似乎是不可能的了,因为娜杰日达显然已经对我十分冷淡……过去,我仿佛觉得,即使大地在我脚下变成碎片,娜杰日达对我的感情也决不会变。可是这种情况已经发生,我对人们的全部信念,对世界的全部信任一起颠倒了过来。我不会再有平静可言了,不论命运可能带给我什么快乐,其中也永远含有毒素……”
这最后一封信寄出以后,再也没有得到回音。

今日视频:1、
卡拉扬指挥柏林爱乐乐团演奏柴可夫斯基第六交响曲《悲怆》

 
 
 
 
 
   
  柴可夫斯基和与俄罗斯音乐协会成员在哈尔科夫1893年3月)      
  Today in the history of music
On April 26, 1891, Tchaikovsky arrived in New York, checked into the Normandy hotel, and began "walking up and down my room (I have two rooms), tearing up."
A trip to the United States had given Tchaikovsky endless longing, but why it made him sad.
Not long ago, Tchaikovsky was nearing the peak of success.He was invited to perform in six cities in the United States.Such an honor had never been bestowed on any Russian composer.Heaven seemed to be smiling at him at last.
Just as he was about to leave for America, a bolt of thunder fell from the sky.Madame najda von meck wrote to him in a tone she had never used before, telling him simply that she was on the verge of bankruptcy and that she could no longer give him anything -- what did it matter to Peter?-- and their intimacy must end.At the end of the letter was a plain, unemotional note: "sometimes thinking of me a little."
The tone of the letter overwhelmed Tchaikovsky, who replied immediately.Did she think that without her support it would affect him?He asked her not to worry about his financial situation because his income had increased greatly.But the last line in your letter, 'thinking of me a little', made me sad...Do you think I only think of you when I use your money?Can I forget for a moment what you have done for me, what your friendship means to me and my music?"Tchaikovsky could never understand the reason for najda's sudden indifference to him. There was no news of the meiks' bankruptcy in Moscow.There must be some other reason for najida's change of attitude, one that only she knows.'please excuse my haste,' he added at the end."I'm too upset to write clearly."
The blow upset him."She's tired of you and your music," a voice kept ringing in his ear."Now that you can no longer take on her job as a hired songwriter, she wants to get rid of you...."
Tchaikovsky was still hoping against hope. Perhaps there was some misunderstanding?.I'm sure she'll write him another letter to explain.Day after day he waited for the letter -- and it never came.He sailed to America and arrived in New York amid much rejoicing.He became the idol of the new world.The millionaire, the lady, the educator, the journalist, the coachman -- they all bowed to him.But this is an empty honor.How he had wished for all this in exchange for a single word from najida.In the last few months;'he is much older.He was, the reporters wrote, "an interesting-looking old man," even though he was only fifty at the time.After much American adulation, he hurried back to Moscow.Still no information on najida.His letter was sent eight months ago.Finally, a letter came -- not from najida, however, but from a friend of theirs."She's very ill, and she's too upset to write to you as usual...."
Tchaikovsky replied at once."I must not add to her misery.It was not that she did not write to me, but the more painful fact that she had lost all interest in me...I am eager to continue my relationship with her after I am no longer supported by her.Unfortunately, this seemed impossible, for it was clear that najida had given me the cold shoulder...In the past, it seemed to me that najida's feelings for me would never change even if the earth broke into pieces beneath my feet.But this had happened, and all my faith in men, all my faith in the world, had been turned upside down.There will be no peace for me, no matter what happiness fate may bring me, there will always be poison in it..."
After this last letter was sent, there was no answer.
Karajan conducts the Berlin philharmonic orchestra in Tchaikovsky's sixth symphony, pathetique.
 
 

 
 
 
       
  彼得·伊里奇·柴可夫斯基(Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky)      
       
  1877年夏,柴可夫斯基与安东妮娜      
  Tchaikovsky with Antonina in the summer of 1877      
  柴可夫斯基在离婚在1878年到1880年之间进行了几次,但是没有成功,很长一段时间以来安东妮娜继续相信某种未来的可能性“和解”,并拒绝同意她丈夫提出,从而调用他的愤怒,和愚蠢的指责,怀疑“讹诈”,等等。直到1881年,柴可夫斯基才最终放弃离婚的想法。这个时候,由于妻子反复无常和难以捉摸的行为,他不再向她支付他答应给她的养老金(每月从50卢布波动到100卢布)。
 
     
   Tchaikovsky undertook several attempts at divorce between 1878 and 1880, but without success, since for a long time Antonina continued to believe in the possibility of some sort of future "reconciliation", and refused to agree to what her husband proposed, thereby invoking his wrath, with accusations of stupidity, suspicions of "blackmail", etc. Only in 1881 did Tchaikovsky finally abandon the idea of divorce. At this time he ceased paying his wife the pension he had promised her (it had fluctuated from 50 to 100 rubles a month) on the rounds of her erratic and unpredictable behaviour. 
 
     
       
  娜杰日达·冯· 梅克(Nadezhda Filaretovna von Meck)      
  梅克夫人,全名:娜杰日达·冯· 梅克(1831年2月10日 - 1894年1月13日),英文全名Nadezhda Filaretovna von Meck ,俄文全称 Надежда Филаретовна фон Мекк。出生于大农场主家庭,父亲是个工程师和音乐爱好者,她的童年是在母亲甜美的歌声中渡过的,更难得的是,她继承了母亲的精明、果敢和商业头脑。16岁结婚,丈夫是名工程师,名叫卡尔·冯·梅克,28岁,德国人,育有18个子女,其中11个子女长大成人。婚后曾因养育子女饱受贫穷困顿,但梅克夫人的商业禀赋和精明干练改变了卡尔的信念和作风,他辞去公职,不久成为铁路运输大亨。
卡尔于1873年不幸病逝,在他的遗嘱中,留给梅克夫人一笔金融股权,包括两个庞大的铁路网络,以及房产和几百万卢布。丈夫去世后,梅克夫人几乎停止了所有的社会活动,她开始隐居,甚至拒绝会见因她的孩子们结婚而到访的亲友。她为自己这么冷酷也曾感到不安,她给柴可夫斯基的信中写道,“ 我在处理各个方面的关系显得非常绝情,是我没有女人味的缘故。而且,我不知道如何进行商谈,他们只能服从,这一特点对我的整个家庭的情感基调来说是受到影响的。我们家庭关系的基调是协同和富有阳刚气,可以这么说。”
梅克夫人有着雄厚的财富和崇高的音乐爱好,带给俄罗斯音乐艺术特别是表演艺术以巨大的推动力。梅克夫人先后资助过德彪西、尼古拉·鲁宾斯坦等人,她还是位于莫斯科的俄罗斯音乐协会的秘密贵宾级会员。在外人看来,她不是赤裸裸地提供资金,而是细致地照顾到艺术家的体面。资助德彪西就是一个例子,她请德彪西做孩子的音乐教师。
资助柴可夫斯基也是一个很好的例子,她决定收藏柴可夫斯基的作品手稿,因为她被《暴风雨》的气势迷住了。梅克夫人与柴可夫斯基,于1876年冬开始了书信交往,一直维持到1890年秋季,其间有据可查的信件多达1200余封。13年里,他们曾两次遇到对方,算是邂逅,且没有交谈。作为报答,柴可夫斯基曾为梅克夫人写下F小调第四交响曲。
1890年,梅克夫人不幸染上结核病,差不多同时,她的儿子弗拉基米尔也被查出患了这种病,无法继续做夫人的私人助理,梅克夫人决定改由茱莉亚女婿担任。由于家庭关系日趋紧张、产业维系日趋艰巨,加上身患重病,梅克夫人把精心写好最后一封信和备好的资金交给贴心侍从伊凡·瓦西里耶夫,辗转送达柴可夫斯基,之后,柴可夫斯基的一封封回信如石沉大海。
1893年9月,柴可夫斯基的侄女安娜,也是梅克夫人的儿媳,动身去尼斯照顾病重的梅克夫人,柴可夫斯基让安娜带去他真挚的歉意,请梅克夫人宽恕他的沉默和消失。2个月之后,命运之神夺走了柴可夫斯基的生命。又过了2个月,命运之神带去柴可夫斯基辞世的噩耗,以此带走了梅克夫人的生命。
     
 
     
   
  1875年左右,冯·梅克家族。男爵夫人Nadezhda Filaretovna在她的怀里抱着最小的女儿Ljudmila (Milochka)。这个小女孩实际上是亚历山大·约林的私生女,坐在左边,同时也是男爵夫人的丈夫,工程师卡尔·冯·梅克(中间戴着黑帽子)的秘书。卡尔——不知道这个事实——他们的二女儿亚历山德拉听说了这个真相,这件事导致了男人心脏病发作死亡。冯•梅克夫妇的子女多达18人(1848年至1872年),其中11人幸存。在中间的照片中,戴着白色帽子的弗拉基米尔是男爵夫人最喜欢的儿子之一      
   The family von Meck around 1875. The baroness Nadezhda Filaretovna is left and holding in her arms the youngest daughter, Ljudmila (Milochka). This little girl was in reality the illegitimate daughter of Alexander Yolshin, sitting on the left and too secretary of the Baroness' husband, the engineer Karl von Meck (center with dark hat). Karl-unaware of the fact-heard of this truth by their second daughter Alexandra thing that caused the death of man to heart attack. The children of the couple von Meck were as many as 18 (between 1848 and 1872), of which 11 survivors. In the photo in the center with white hat, Vladimir, one of the favorite sons of the Baroness.      
       
  柴可夫斯基和梅克夫人的通信集      
 
  Madame von Meck, full name: da disciplinarian, von m (February 10, 1831 - January 13, 1894), English full name Nadezhda Filaretovna von Meck, Russian name Н а д е ж д а Ф и л а р е т о kind guide н а ф о н М е seem seem.Born to a rancher father who was an engineer and a music lover, she spent her childhood surrounded by her mother's sweet singing voice. More importantly, she inherited her mother's shrewdness, determination and business acumen.Married at 16 to engineer Karl von meck, 28, from Germany, with 18 children, 11 of whom grew up.After a marriage plagued by poverty and poverty as a result of raising children, Mrs. Meck's business flair and shrewdness changed Carl's beliefs and style, and he resigned from public office and soon became a railroad tycoon.
 Carl died of illness in 1873. In his will, he left madame meck a financial stake, including two large railway networks, as well as property and several million rubles.After her husband's death, Mrs. Meck stopped almost all social activities and began to live in seclusion, refusing even to meet friends and relatives who had come to visit her children for their marriage.She was troubled by her coldness. She wrote to Tchaikovsky, "I am very unfeeling in all my relations, because I am not feminine.Also, I didn't know how to negotiate, they had to comply, and that trait affected the emotional tone of my entire family.The tone of our family relationship is synergy and masculinity, so to speak."
 With her rich fortune and lofty music hobby, madame meck brought the Russian music art, especially the performing art, a great impetus.Madame meck has sponsored Debussy, nikolai rubenstein and others, and she is a secret VIP member of the Russian music association in Moscow.To outsiders, she is not naked about funding, but meticulous about the decency of the artist.One example is Debussy, whom she asked to be her children's music teacher.
 Funding Tchaikovsky is another good example. She decided to collect his manuscripts because she was fascinated by the momentum of the tempest.Madame meck and Tchaikovsky began a correspondence in the winter of 1876, which lasted until the fall of 1890, with more than 1,200 letters recorded.They met each other twice in 13 years, sort of by chance, without talking.In return, Tchaikovsky wrote madame meck's fourth symphony in F minor.
 Around the same time that her son vladimir was diagnosed with the disease, she was unable to continue as her personal assistant.Because of the growing tension in the family, the increasingly difficult maintenance of the industry, coupled with a serious illness, madame meyk carefully wrote the last letter and prepared funds to the intimate servant Ivan vasiliev, sent to Tchaikovsky, after, Tchaikovsky's reply is like a dead letter.
 In September 1893, Tchaikovsky's niece Anna, who was also madame meck's daughter-in-law, set out for nice to take care of the seriously ill madame meck.Two months later, fate took Tchaikovsky's life.Two months later, fate brought the news of Tchaikovsky's death, taking madame meck's life with it.
 
     
 
 
 
 
 
     
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