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                      莫扎特之旅-文化交流-音乐历史上的今天                    
                     
 
 
                   
                     

                   
                     
 
 

 
 

                                    莫扎特之旅 编译 文/图 2020-08-04 19:36

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
  沃尔夫冈·阿玛迪斯·莫扎特(Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 1756-1791)      
         
  梅纽因在莫斯科演奏莫扎特G大调小提琴与钢琴奏鸣曲 K379 (1987)      
 

soviettele
钢琴:维多利亚·波斯特尼科娃
G大调小提琴与钢琴奏鸣曲,KV379。
艺术家:Menuhin Yehudi(小提琴),Postnikova Victoria(钢琴)
作曲家:莫扎特·沃尔夫冈·阿玛迪斯
G大调小提琴与钢琴第一奏鸣曲,作品78。
艺术家:Menuhin Yehudi(小提琴),Postnikova Victoria(钢琴)
作曲家:勃拉姆斯约翰内斯
苏联钢琴:维多利亚·波斯特尼科娃
莫扎特小提琴和钢琴奏鸣曲,G大调,KV379。
艺术家:耶胡迪·梅纽因(小提琴),
维多利亚·波斯特尼科娃(钢琴)
作曲家:莫扎特沃尔夫冈·阿马德乌斯
奏鸣曲编号。 第一小提琴和钢琴在G大调,作品。 78.
艺术家:Menuhin Yehudi(小提琴),
Postnikova Victoria(钢琴)
作曲家:布拉姆斯·约翰内斯

     
  soviettele
 钢琴:Victoria Postnikova
 Sonata for Violin and Piano in G Major, KV379.
 Artist: Menuhin Yehudi (violin), Postnikova Victoria (piano)
 Composer: Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus
 Sonata No. 1 for violin and piano in G Major, Op. 78.
 Artist: Menuhin Yehudi (violin), Postnikova Victoria (piano)
 Composer: Brahms Johannes
     
 
     
  音乐历史上的今天

1782年8月4日,26岁的莫扎特同19岁的康斯坦萨.韦伯(Constanze Weber)结婚。“当我们结合在一起,我妻子开始哭泣,我也一样——实际上,我们都在哭,甚至牧师们都在见证着我们的感情。”

莫扎特和康斯坦策彩虹般的婚姻
一、初恋
  德国著名音乐家韦伯有四个漂亮的女儿,莫扎特曾爱上了阿洛伊西亚(Aloysia)这个有着美妙的女高音嗓子的十五岁的女孩子。父亲怕他的儿子在他找到一个好职位以前结婚而惊恐不安。他写信催促这年轻人到巴黎去试试他的运气。象一个顺从的儿子那样,沃尔夫岗与阿洛伊西告别,失望而忧伤地到巴黎去了。几年之后,失意的莫扎特伤心地转回家乡。他在路上访问韦伯,发现那漂亮而感情易变的阿洛伊西亚已经变了心,对他已相当冷淡。
二、婚姻
  莫扎特到维也纳这个大城市去找他的幸运。他的老朋友们——威柏一家,都在那里。阿洛伊西亚已经成为维也纳歌剧院工资最高的歌唱家,但是她这时已经嫁给一个名叫朗格的演员。莫扎特再一次堕入情网,这一次是同阿洛伊西亚的妹妹——那个愉快的、黑眼睛的康斯坦斯(Constance),她也欣然接受了他的爱情。莫扎特的父亲反对他在没有稳定的收入的时候结婚。康斯坦斯的监护人拒绝让莫扎特见她,除非他签署一个文件,答应和她结婚。康斯坦斯立即把这文件撕碎说:“亲爱的莫扎特,我不需要任何书面的诺言,我相信你的话。”在经过许多麻烦事之后,他们终于结婚了。过了一天,他们收到一封信,里面写着父亲老莫扎特的祝福。
  象故事书里面的情人一样,他们经过好的时光和坏的时光,互相间都很快乐。康斯坦斯象《天方夜谭》里的公主一样,有会讲各种逗人笑的故事的窍门,而且她在穷困和身体不好的时候也从来不失去她愉快的心情。当他们有任何可安排的东西时,她都能安排得令人赞赏。莫扎特经常愿意把他所有的一切借给或送给任何看上去需要帮助的陌生人。
三、艰难时世
  莫扎特是不靠一个教堂或宫廷的职位而能辛苦地挣一点钱勉强糊口的第一批音乐家中的一个----而那是多么穷困而毫无保障的生活呀!他每逢有机会找到一个学生就给他上音乐课。他每星期在自己房间里开室内音乐会,为此卖季度票或预订票。为了开这些音乐会,他创作了一些人们从未写过的最好听的奏鸣曲、四重奏和三重奏。在别的时候,他就租一个音乐厅,雇一个管弦乐队为热切地预订票的维也纳贵族老爷和夫人们演出他最新写的交响曲。
  正如他的父亲所料,二十六岁的莫扎特成家之后,生活更加贫困。有了子女之后,更是难以糊口,全家生活在饥寒交迫之中。为了改变这种处境,莫扎特经常饿着肚子,拖着疲惫的身躯举行长时间、超负荷的音乐演奏会,然而却挣不到几个钱,所得到的只是一些戒指、表和鼻烟壶等既不能吃,又不能当钱使的礼品。莫扎特唯一能做的事,就是把这些东西送进当铺,换得一点钱,让全家人吃上一顿饱饭。

尽管歌剧《魔笛》大获成功,连演200场,但每一分钱都进了那个诡计多端的编剧席坎内德尔的腰包。莫扎特还支撑着病体继续写他的委约作品《安魂曲》并总念叨着“我是在为自己谱写安魂曲!”

他面色苍白地躺在那儿。这不是悲哀的颜色,而是平静的颜色。一次高烧在他三十五岁的时候就吞噬了他的生命。《安魂曲》尚未完成。他身后留下了价值三十八美元的遗物。

一个经济富裕的朋友答应支付丧葬费。他是个音乐爱好者,但是并不想把葬礼办得怎么阔绰。朴素一些,一个贫民墓。遗体由几个人护送着踏上最后的旅程。刺骨的寒风打在他们的脸上,然后又是倾盆大雨。送葬人一个个地把衣领翻起,帽檐拉下,悄悄地回到家里。在遗体到达墓地门口的时候,在场的只剩下了挖坟的人。
康丝丹采这时正在接受治疗。几天之后,她悄悄地来到墓地上,踏着软弱无力的步子歹四处寻找丈夫的坟墓多却看不到任何标志。后来,她偶然发现墓地看守人的茅屋。 “你能告诉我吗,先生;”她用颤抖的声音问道, “他们把我丈夫埋在哪儿了?他的名字叫莫扎特。”
“莫扎特?”看守人重复了一遍。 “我从来没有听说过这个名字。”

今日视频:1、
梅纽因在莫斯科演奏莫扎特G大调小提琴与钢琴奏鸣曲 K379 (1987);2、希拉里·哈恩-莫扎特- G大调第18号小提琴奏鸣曲;3、梅纽因、古尔德演奏贝多芬《第十小提琴奏鸣曲》

 
 
 
 
 
   
  1763年11月18日莫扎特已经抵达巴黎,1764年4月23日莫扎特一家到达伦敦。      
  列奥波德·莫扎特和玛丽亚夫妇就是这样带着两个孩子在马车中颠簸了十几年,走遍了欧洲,所以,后来人们说莫扎特的音乐应该属于马车时代的音乐,莫扎特很多音乐作品和书信都是在马车上构思和创作的。      
  This was how Leopold and Maria and their two children were tossed around in carriages all over Europe for more than a decade, so people later said that Mozart's music belonged to the carriage era, and that much of Mozart's music and letters were conceived and composed in carriages.      
   
  约翰·内波穆克·德拉·克罗齐作创作的画像《莫扎特一家》      
  《莫扎特一家》的画像为画家约翰·内波穆克·德拉·克罗齐所作,大约作于1780年,即莫扎特从巴黎返回萨尔茨堡的次年。
画中正在弹琴的是莫扎特和他的姐姐玛丽亚·安娜(别名南内尔),当时莫扎特年方24岁,南内尔29岁。坐在琴旁手里拿着小提琴的,是他的父亲利奥波德。挂在墙上的母亲的肖像,大约是1775年洛伦佐尼或弗兰茨·约瑟夫·德格勒所画。画母亲的肖像的时候,是在莫扎特同母亲去巴黎的前两年,母亲是在1778年7月3日死于巴黎的,当德拉·克罗齐画《莫扎特一家》时,母亲已死了两年。据南内尔说,德拉·克罗齐这幅画画得特别像。
这幅画现藏于萨尔茨堡莫扎特博物馆。
     
     The Mozart Family was painted by the painter Johann Nepomuk DE La Croce circa 1780, the year after Mozart returned to Salzburg from Paris.
Mozart and his sister Maria Anna, also known as Nannerl, were playing the piano when Mozart was 24 and Nannerl was 29.Sitting beside it, violin in hand, was his father Leopold.A portrait of his mother hanging on the wall, circa 1775, by Lorenzoni or Franz Joseph Degler.She had died in Paris on July 3, 1778. She had been dead for two years when Della Croce painted the Mozarts.According to Nannerl, this painting by Della Croce is very similar.
The painting is now in the Mozart Museum in Salzburg.
     
       
  康斯坦泽·韦伯(Constanze Weber)      
  康斯坦泽·韦伯早年生活
康斯坦泽·韦伯出生于策尔伊姆维森塔尔,是弗里多林·韦伯和采齐利亚·韦伯的女儿。著名的音乐家卡尔·马利亚·冯·韦伯为弗里多林·韦伯的同父异母兄弟的儿子。康斯坦泽还有两个姐姐和一个妹妹,四个姊妹从小被父亲培养为歌唱家。
康斯坦泽家长期住在她母亲的家乡--曼海姆,曼海姆是当时重要的音乐中心。1777年,21岁的莫扎特和母亲来到曼海姆寻求工作的机会,与韦伯家关系甚密。21岁的莫扎特坠入爱河,爱上了康斯坦泽·韦伯的二姐,其时的康斯坦泽·韦伯只有15岁。
1779年康斯坦泽·韦伯家搬去维也纳。一个月后,其父弗里多林去世。
康斯坦泽·莫扎特
1781年,莫扎特到达维也纳。然而19岁的康斯坦泽和莫扎特的关系发展并不顺利。1782年4月,发生的一段基于嫉妒的小插曲使得莫扎特和康斯坦泽感情几乎破裂。同时,在婚姻的问题上,莫扎特面临着来自父亲方面的压力。
婚礼最终在充斥着批评的声浪中举行。1782年8月4日,康斯坦泽正式成为了沃尔夫冈·阿玛多伊斯·莫扎特的妻子。康斯坦泽为莫扎特生了6个孩子,其中4个在婴儿期都不幸夭折 。
莫扎特死后
1791年,莫扎特去世。留下的债务把康斯坦泽·莫扎特推向了一个不同的处境。然而康斯坦泽通过自己出色的经营技巧度过了难关。她还送两个儿子去布拉格接受教育。期间她还参与了第一部莫扎特的长篇传记的撰写工作。
1797年,遇见冯·尼森。1798年9月,与冯·尼森同居。1809年,两人结婚。1810年到1820年间,两人居住在哥本哈根,并在欧洲各地旅行,主要在德国和意大利。1824年,他们定居于萨尔兹堡。两人共同撰写莫扎特的传记。康斯坦泽最终在1828年完成了传记的出版,此时她的第二任丈夫去世已经两年。在康斯坦泽生命的最后日子里,她的两个同为寡妇的姐妹陪伴着她。1842年,康斯坦泽去世。
     
   
  曾经获得八项奥斯卡奖的电影《莫扎特》中的康斯坦丝韦伯(伊丽莎白·贝利奇)ş我沃尔夫冈。阿马德乌斯。莫扎特(汤姆·赫尔斯)      
  In the film Mozart, which won eight Academy Awards Constanze Weber (Elizabeth Berridge) şi Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (Tom Hulce)      
   Constanze Weber
The early life of Constanze Weber
Constanze Weber was born in Zelim Wiesenthal, the daughter of Friedelin Weber and Zezelia Weber.The famous musician Carl Maria von Weber was the son of Friedelin Weber's half brother.Constanze has two older sisters and one younger sister, four of whom were raised as singers by their father.
The Constanze family lived for a long time in her mother's hometown, Mannheim, which was an important music center at that time.In 1777, at the age of 21, Mozart and his mother came to Mannheim to seek work, and they were close to the Weber family.Mozart fell in love at the age of 21 with the second sister of Constanze Weber, then only 15.
In 1779 Constanze Weber's family moved to Vienna.A month later, his father, Fridlin, died.
Constanze Mozart
In 1781, Mozart arrived in Vienna.Yet the relationship between the 19-year-old Constanze and Mozart did not go well.Mozart and Constanze nearly broke down in April 1782 in an episode based on jealousy.Mozart, meanwhile, faced pressure from his father over his marriage.
The wedding finally took place amid a storm of criticism.On August 4, 1782, Constanze officially became the wife of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.Konstanze bore Mozart six children, four of whom died in infancy.
After Mozart died
In 1791, Mozart died.The debt left behind put Constanze Mozart in a different position.Yet Mr Konstanza has weathered the storm with excellent business skills.She also sent her two sons to Prague for an education.She also worked on the first long biography of Mozart.
In 1797, he met Von Nissen.In September 1798, he moved in with Von Nissen.They married in 1809.Between 1810 and 1820 the two lived in Copenhagen and travelled around Europe, mainly in Germany and Italy.In 1824, they settled in Salzburg.The two co-wrote a biography of Mozart.Constanze finally finished publishing her biography in 1828, two years after the death of her second husband.In the last days of her life, Constanze was accompanied by two sisters who were also widows.Constanze died in 1842.
     
       
  沃尔夫冈·阿玛迪斯·莫扎特(Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart )      
  1789年7月14日,“啊!上帝!寄出这封信真让我为难——但是,我必须寄!如果这疾病没有降临到我身上,我本不至于如此厚颜地一的朋友乞怜。我祈望您的原谅,因为我的处境之优劣您都知晓,坏的情况只是暂时的,而好处才是永久的.....这样写信给他的兄弟会好友迈克尔.冯.普赫贝格男爵。普赫贝格接济给他的钱相当于今天的10000英镑。

打开《莫扎特书信集》,像这样的求助信,在1788年到1789年比比皆是,冯.普赫贝格男爵从1888年就已经开始了接济莫扎特一家了,1889年三月末求援,四月窘境中的求助,六月、包括这封7.14的窘境中的呼吁后,7.17又发给冯.普赫贝格男爵还是求助信,这些都说明什么?有很多研究学者大谈什么莫扎特当年不是钱少而是不会生活,康斯坦策过于挥霍,实际莫扎特订单多多,每年的收入颇丰,这是不切合实际的猜测,如果手头阔卓,为什么还死皮赖脸地苦苦地哀求别人,这是很不实际的猜想。只能说明在当时的环境下,艺术家根本就不值钱,他们和厨师工匠都是同等待遇。这和莫扎特一家,包括莫扎特爸爸的雇主玛利亚·特蕾莎皇后对待他们的态度不无关系。

     
   On July 14, 1789, "Ah!God!It's hard for me to send this letter -- but I must!If this disease had not befallen me, I would not have had the cheek of a friend to beg.I pray for your forgiveness, for you know the advantages and disadvantages of my situation, that the bad is only temporary, and the good is permanent...To baron Michael von Puchberg, his frat friend.The money he received was equivalent to 10,000 pounds in today's money.
 Opened the Mozart, collection, faking it like this, from 1788 to 1789, von puch berg baron from 1888 began to support a Mozart, in March 1889 for help at the end of April for help in dilemma, June, including this letter called for in the dilemma of 7.14, 7.17 and sent to von puch berg baron or faking it, all of these show?There are a lot of scholars talk about that Mozart was not lack of money but not able to live, Constanze was too extravagant, the fact that Mozart orders a lot, a lot of money every year, this is not a realistic guess, if the money is very rich, why still desperately to beg others, this is not a realistic guess.It just goes to show that in the context of the time, artists weren't worth anything, they were treated the same as chefs and artisans.This had something to do with the way the Mozarteans, including His father's employer, Queen Maria Teresa, treated them.
     
   
  1782年,莫扎特一首小提琴奏鸣曲的开头,在右上角可见莫扎特用法文写的“献给我的爱妻”。      
 
     
  Today in the history of music
On August 4, 1782, at the age of 26, Mozart married 19-year-old Constanze Weber."When we got together, my wife started crying, and So did I. In fact, we were all crying, and even the ministers were witnessing our feelings."
A rainbow marriage between Mozart and Constanze
A, the first love
The famous German musician Weber had four beautiful daughters, and Mozart fell in love with Aloysia, a 15-year-old girl with a beautiful soprano voice.The father was terrified that his son would get married before he found a good position.He wrote to urge the young man to try his luck in Paris.Like an obedient son, Wolff - Gon bade Aloise farewell and went sadly to Paris.A few years later, a frustrated Mozart sadly returned home.On the way he visits Weber, and finds that the beautiful and emotional Aloysia has changed her mind and is rather cold towards him.
Second, the marriage
Mozart went to the great city of Vienna to find his fortune.His old friends, the Webers, were all there.Aloisia had become the highest-paid singer at the Vienna Opera, but she was already married to an actor named Lange.Mozart fell in love again, this time with Aloisia's sister, the cheerful, black-eyed Constance, who accepted his love with alacrity.Mozart's father objected to his marrying when he had no steady income.Constance's guardian refused to let Mozart see her unless he signed a document promising to marry her.Constance immediately tore up the document and said, "Dear Mozart, I don't need any written promises. I believe what you say."After much trouble, they finally got married.One day later, they received a letter with a blessing from their father, old Mozart.
Like lovers in a storybook, they had good times and bad times and were happy with each other.Constance, like the princess in the Arabian Nights, had the knack of telling funny stories, and she never lost her cheerfulness in times of poverty and ill health.When they had anything to arrange, she arranged it admirably.Mozart was often willing to lend or give whatever he had to any stranger who seemed to need help.
Difficult times
Mozart was one of the first musicians to struggle to make ends meet without having to work for a church or court position -- and what a poor and insecure life that was!Whenever he had a chance to find a student, he gave him music lessons.He holds indoor concerts in his room every week, selling season tickets or booking them.For these concerts, he composed some of the finest sonatas, quartets, and trios that have ever been written.At other times he would rent a concert hall and hire an orchestra to perform his latest symphony for the Viennese lords and ladies eagerly booking tickets.
Just as his father had predicted, Mozart was only 26 when he married and lived in even greater poverty.After having children, it is difficult to make ends meet and the whole family lives in hunger and cold.To remedy this situation, Mozart often went hungry and shuffled himself through an overload of music concerts, earning little money and receiving rings, watches and snuff bottles that could neither be eaten nor used as gifts.The only thing Mozart could do was to pawn them off for a little money so that the whole family could have a full meal.
Despite the success of the Magic Flute, which ran for 200 performances, every penny went to the wily scriptwriter, Sidkandel.Mozart continued to write his commissioned "Requiem," always muttering, "I'm writing my own requiem!"
He lay there looking pale.This is not the color of sorrow, but the color of peace.A fever killed him at the age of thirty-five.The Requiem is not yet finished.He left behind him a legacy worth thirty-eight dollars.
A wealthy friend agreed to pay for the funeral.He was a music lover, but he didn't want a lavish funeral.Simpler, a pauper's grave.The body was escorted by several people on the final journey.There was a biting wind in their faces, and then another downpour.One by one the mourners turned up their collars, pulled down their hats, and quietly returned home.When the body arrived at the cemetery gate, only the grave-diggers were left.
Constancai was receiving medical treatment at the time.A few days later, she went quietly to the cemetery, and walked feebly about looking for her husband's grave. There were no signs.Then she came across the caretaker's hut."Can you tell me, Sir;"'she asked in a trembling voice.' Where did they bury my husband?His name is Mozart."
"Mozart?"'repeated the watchman."I've never heard of that name."
Today's video: 1、Menuhin plays Mozart's Sonata K379 (1987) for violin and piano in G major in Moscow.2. Hilary Hahn Mozart - G Sonata for violin no. 18;3.MajorMenuhin and Gould on Beethoven's Sonata for the Tenth Violin.
 

 
 
 
 
     
         
  希拉里·哈恩-莫扎特- G大调第18号小提琴奏鸣曲,      
  Hilary Hahn - Mozart - Violin Sonata No 18 in G major,      
         
  贝多芬《第十小提琴奏鸣曲》梅纽因小提琴 古尔德钢琴      
  钢琴:Gleen Gould 小提琴:Yehudi Menuhin      
  曲目:贝多芬《第十小提琴奏鸣曲》

贝多芬的这些奏鸣曲大多是男性化的,只有第五奏鸣曲“春天”是女性化的,但里面也男性的声音在对比中成长,他在精神上是开放性是非常高尚的,贝多芬《第十小提琴奏鸣曲》是贝多芬最成熟的奏鸣曲,这首奏鸣曲对贝多芬来说是情感上的胜利和升华,人们一般不把它和男性性格等同看待。第十奏鸣曲和第八交响曲是同期创作的。穆特曾经说过:“我认为人们不应该从第十奏鸣曲入手听这些奏鸣曲,在这部作品里,贝多芬第一次不和现实斗争。这部《G大调奏鸣曲》的高尚精神论述了存在的重要,是对追求更高生活理想的努力的召唤。贝多芬不断向人类恳求。《费德里奥》《庄严弥撒》和他的《第九交响曲》,也都很清楚地表现出来。贝多芬最后一般奏鸣曲要求演奏者有很大程度的成熟性。这是我最喜欢的作品。”
     
  Beethoven 10th Violin Sonata Menuhin violin Gould Piano      
 
Repertoire: "Sonata for the Tenth Violin" by Beethoven
Piano: Gleen Gould Violin: Yehudi Menuhin
The most of these sonatas of Beethoven is masculine, only the fifth sonata "spring" is feminine, but it also grows a male voice, in contrast, he is open is very noble in spirit, Beethoven's "tenth violin sonata" is the most mature of Beethoven's sonata, this sonata of Beethoven and sublimation of victory is the emotional, people usually don't look at it and the male character equivalent.Sonata no. 10 and Symphony No. 8 were composed simultaneously.Mutter once said: "I do not think one should begin with the tenth sonata, in which Beethoven first did not struggle with reality.The noble spirit of Sonata in G Major discusses the importance of existence and is a call to the pursuit of a higher ideal of life.Beethoven kept pleading with humanity."Federico," "Solemn Mass," and his Symphony No. 9, are also clearly shown.Beethoven's final general sonata requires a great degree of maturity on the part of the player.This is my favorite piece."
     
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