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                                    莫扎特之旅 编译 文/图 2020-06-10  19:36

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
  欧尼斯特·肖松(Ernest Chausson 1855—1899)      
         
  吉内特·内芙演奏欧内斯特·肖松《音诗》      
 
     
  音乐历史上的今天

1899年6月10日,44岁的法国作曲家欧内斯特·肖松(《音诗》和《爱与海之诗》的作者)从自行车上摔下后,伤势久治不愈而亡。

欧内斯特·肖松(Ernest Chausson)1855年1月21日生于法国巴黎,是属于音乐气质罕见的一位曲家,他富裕、世故,原先学法律,后来放弃了这个有利可图、而又多少受人尊敬的专业、投身子对艺术的追求。他像一个遵命的法国儿子,按照父母的意思,读完了法律课程,并获得律师资格,再转向音乐。l880年爹他25岁时,进巴黎音乐学,在马斯内(Massenet)的班上学习,马斯内对他有点帮助,但未能唤起他内心对音乐的热忱。幸运的是,这个时候正值赛萨尔·弗兰克(Cesar Franck,1822-1890)来校任职,也许弗兰克认为肖松在音乐上憎恨虚伪以及他谦逊、纯朴的本质在某些地方和自己很相似,所以他将这位年轻的音乐家算在他喜爱的学生中加以培养。就这样,肖松在弗兰克的精心指导,学了三年,从他那里,肖松学到了那传统的稳固的结构形式,以少有的简朴处理重音,以及那表达感情的精炼和细致的手法,加上肖松他本人脆弱和敏感的性格,使上述成果更突出于倾向了忧郁,这样,好象把它的音乐都蒙上了一层“悲哀的”纱帘。弗兰克所有的学生中,肖松无疑可能是最富于自然感情的一个,对他在音乐上进步有着极其重大的影响。
肖松是民族音乐学会(Societe Netionalc de Musique)这个组织的积极分子,1889年又担任该学会的秘书职务。
肖松曾创作过几部歌剧,有的脚本还是自己编写的,他的名声却主要来于他的乐器作品。有很长时间,他的作品一直被忽视,一方面可能由于当时法国的音乐界全神贯注于歌剧和舞台剧,而肖松本人又缺乏那种决断的主张和充分的自信;另一方面肖松音乐本身也不是那种能够很快就在法国音乐界留下印象的体裁和风格,它很少戏剧变化,又不华丽还被怀疑是瓦格纳式的产物。很奇怪,倒是一位德国大指挥家阿瑟尔·尼基施(Artur Nikisch)出力把肖松的音乐介绍给了广大的听众,后来比利时小提琴家依萨伊和著名的法国音乐家科洛纳(Cologne)也对肖松的音乐作了有力的推荐。肖松最著名的作品有:为小提琴和乐队作的《音诗》(Poeme),它差不多是所有著名提琴家的保留节目。另外,降B大调的交响曲也是法国交响乐库的的基本内容,声乐作品,如《蜂鸟》(Ie Colibri)和《商队》(La Caravane),都深受欢迎。它们就像迪帕克(Dupare)的作品一样,有着许多细微的感觉,包含了一种以异常美丽和清晰的音乐浯言来表达出自然感情的珍贵天赋。这就是肖松的个性和感受。
正当肖松的创作在向前迅速进展时,他突然遭到了不幸,1899年7月10日,在利迈(Limay)他的别墅内,由于骑车不慎,自行车滑下山坡,撞在石墙上,头盖骨碎裂而身死。

今日视频:1、
吉内特·内芙演奏欧内斯特·肖松《音诗》;2、皮埃尔•杜坎演奏欧内斯特·肖松《音诗》。

 
 
 
 
 
   
  欧内斯特·肖松(Ernest Chausson 1855—1899)      
  Today in the history of music
On June 10, 1899, 44-year-old French composer Ernest Schausson (author of "Poems of Sound" and "Poems of Love and the Sea") died from his injuries after falling off his bicycle.
Ernest Chausson was born on January 21, 1855 in Paris, France. He was a composer of rare musical temperament. He was wealthy and sophisticated.Like a compliant French son, he did his parents' bidding, finished his law course, was called to the bar, and turned to music.When he was 25, he entered musicology in Paris and studied in Massenet's class, who helped him a little but failed to arouse his inner passion for music.Fortunately, this was the time when Cesar Franck (1822-1890) came to work at the school. Perhaps Frank thought that Xiao Song's musical hatred of hypocrisy and his humble, simple nature were in some ways similar to his own, so he cultivated the young musician among his favorite students.In this way, chausson in frank's careful guidance, study for three years, from him, chausson learned that the structure of the traditional solid, as one of the few simple handle stress, and the expression of refining and meticulous technique, plus chausson himself vulnerable and sensitive personality, make the results more prominent in the tendency of the depression, in this way, as if all the music it covered with a layer of gauze shade "sad".Of all Frank's students, Xiao Song was undoubtedly the most spontaneous and had a great influence on his musical progress.
Xiao Song was an active member of the Organization Societe Netionalc DE Musique and served as its secretary in 1889.
Xiao Song wrote several operas, some of which he wrote himself, but his fame is mainly due to his Musical Instruments.For a long time, his works have been neglected. On the one hand, it may be because the French music industry at that time was concentrated on opera and stage play, and Xiao Song himself lacked such a decisive opinion and full confidence.On the other hand, Xiaosong's music itself is not the kind of genre and style that can make a quick impression on the French music industry. It has few dramatic changes, is not gorgeous and is suspected to be a Product of Wagner's style.It was, oddly enough, a German conductor, Artur Nikisch, who helped bring His music to a wide audience, and later the Belgian violinist Isaie and the famed French musician Cologne.Xiao Song's most famous work is Poeme for violin and orchestra, which is a reserved program for almost all famous violinists.Symphonies in B flat major are also a staple of the French symphonic library, and vocal works such as Ie Colibri and La Caravane are popular.Like Dupare's works, they have many subtle feelings, and contain a precious gift for expressing natural feelings in unusually beautiful and clear musical words.This is Xiao Song's personality and feelings.
Xiao Song was making rapid progress in his work when he was suddenly struck by misfortune. On July 10, 1899, his bicycle slipped down the hill and hit a stone wall in his villa in Limay.
Video of the day: 1. Genette Neff playing Ernest Xiaosong's Musical Poem; 2.2. Pierre Dukan on Ernest Xiaosong's "Sonny".       
 

 
 
 
 
     
   
  肖松在和声运用方面的个性非常鲜明。他从老师弗朗克那里吸取了带变化伴音的音乐语汇,来修饰和丰富音乐的进行。其中的奥秘好像只有法国人才能诠释清楚。
他的音乐旋律在精致醇 厚的伴奏声部的衬托下闪烁出熠熠光彩。肖松的管弦乐配器非常精致、明晰而丰润。
肖松对文学和绘画的热情无疑使他的音乐创作更加绚丽多彩。 他特别擅长营造某种氛围,比如在《诗》Op.25和《爱 和海之诗》中起主导作用的性爱主题。他的许多动人的音乐作品都与文学紧密相连。
颓废和绝望是肖松所处时代的典型特征,特别是与他的音乐有关联的象征主义运动的风行。但在肖松的音乐中似乎总 是存在着一种失望或者说是对无法得到的爱情的失落,以及一种忧郁的沉闷感。
肖松是受屠格涅夫关于爱情的一首长诗的启迪而创作的《音诗》。一开始是神秘莫测的缓板。在缓慢而又神秘性的序奏之后,独奏小提琴以弱音奏出冥想性典雅的第一主题。管弦乐将它反复之后,独奏小提琴接着展开花奏,之后乐曲转变为 “生气蓬勃地”。独奏小提琴以全部合奏为背景,用最强奏奏出热情而强烈的第二主题。乐曲的第三主题为全曲的华彩部分,主奏小提琴的深情旋律将乐曲引向高潮段落。接下来是稍缓板,出现开头序奏部的材料,以管弦乐再度奏出第一主题,然后由独奏小提琴来承接。小提琴在D大调上以稍慢的速度唱出第一主题,回到原来速度。 乐曲由此进入终结部,最后以最弱奏结束全曲。
很难解释出《音诗》中究竟说了些什么,因为它包容的东西太多,象人的内心一样复杂,象浩瀚的宇宙一样容纳着一切。不妨说,它总结了爱情中的一切,得到与失去,欢欣与痛苦……
     
   Xiao Song's personality in harmony is very distinct.From his teacher Frank, he absorbed the musical vocabulary with varying accompaniment to modify and enrich the progress of music.Only the French seem able to explain the mystery.
His melodies shimmer with an elaborate accompaniment.Xiao Song's orchestration is very delicate, clear and rich.
Xiao Song's passion for literature and painting undoubtedly made his music more colorful.He was particularly good at creating certain atmospheres, such as the erotic themes that dominated poetry op.25 and Poetry of Love and the Sea.Many of his moving musical works are closely related to literature.
Decadence and despair are typical characteristics of Xiao Song's era, especially the popularity of the symbolic movement associated with his music.But in Xiao Song's music there always seems to be a kind of disappointment or the loss of unattainable love, as well as a kind of melancholy dullness.
Xiao Song is inspired by Turgenev's long poem about love.It starts with a mysterious retinue.After a slow and mysterious prelude, the solo violin plays the first theme of meditative elegance in a subdued tone.The orchestra repeats it, the solo violin follows, and the music turns "lively".The solo violin, with the full ensemble as the background, plays the most intense and intense second theme.The third theme is the colorful part of the whole song, with the main violin playing the soulful melody leading to the climax.Then there is a slightly retinched panel, the material for the opening prologue, and again the first theme is played by orchestral music, which is then taken up by solo violin.The violin sings the first theme in D major at a slightly slower speed, returning to the original speed.This leads to the finale, which ends with the weakest play.
It is difficult to explain what the Poem contains, because it contains so many things, as complex as the human heart, and as vast as the universe.It sums up, as it were, everything in love, gain and loss, joy and pain...
     
 
 
   
 
欧尼斯特·肖松(Ernest Chausson)和夫人在作曲中
     
  伟大的小提琴教育家拉斐尔·布朗斯坦这样给学生讲解这首《音诗》:
肖松的《音诗》所表达的是一首悲惨丽绝望的故事,演奏时要有亲切的感情以及法国学派所特有的各种特点。这首作品表达了巨大的持情性和对自己的怜悯。肖松的这首作品是看了尼古莱·戈戈尔所写的“五月之夜“所受到的启发而写成的,这个故事是描写了在俄国农民中流传的有关魔鬼的传说。作者深深的被这首恐怖的传说所描绘的各种情绪变化所感动,这首传说把各种不宁静的环境呈现在听众面前,同时又表达了诗一般的亲切感情。
开始的小提琴独奏应该演奏成似乎演奏者正在寻找主题,据说肖松和依萨伊在作这酋即兴式的引子时的确是这样想的。旋律线条只是在酝酿中,还不十分肯定。每一个音符都要演奏得好象不知道下一个音符是什么似的,样听众就感到演奏者好象真是在即兴演。在肖松的同意下,新写了下依萨伊重新写了一段音乐,并以改过后的形式演奏了这首音诗。
     
  The great violin educator, Raphael Brownstein, explained the poem to his students as follows:
 Xiao Song's "Sound poem" expresses a tragic, beautiful and hopeless story. It should be played with cordial feelings and various characteristics peculiar to the French school.This work expresses great compassion and pity for oneself.Xiao Song's work was inspired by Nikolai Gogol's "May Night," a story about demons that spread among Russian peasants.The author is deeply moved by the emotional changes described in this horrible legend, which presents the audience with various unsettled circumstances and expresses poetic affection at the same time.
 The beginning violin solo should be played as if the player were looking for a theme, as Xiao Song and Isay are said to have thought when they made the chief-improvisation.The melodic lines are just brewing, not quite sure yet.Each note should be played as if it did not know what the next note was, and the listener would feel that the player was really improvising.With Xiao Song's consent, he wrote a new piece of music and played it in a modified form.
     
       
  吉内特·内芙(Ginette Neveu)      
  吉内特·内芙(Ginette Neveu,1919-1949)出生于巴黎的一个音乐家庭,法国天才女小提琴家,也是二十世纪最著名的女性小提琴家之一。尚在襁褓中便能听曲哼歌,学走路不久就开始跟母亲学琴,7岁即在音乐会上独奏,11岁获奖学金进巴黎音乐学院。先后受学于埃乃斯库(Georges Eescu)和弗莱什(Carl Flesch),1935年参加华沙维尼亚夫斯基国际比赛获第一名。此后在各地演奏,二战期间中断了演出。战后在伦敦复出,随后在世界乐坛掀起一阵内芙热,当时没有任何一位小提琴家可与之比拟。内芙的演奏,以音色的美妙、变化多端著称,句法处理有一种清新秀美感,可惜1949年她年仅30岁就死于飞机失事。虽然内芙的演奏生涯仅有短短的十几年,但耀眼的光芒至今仍未曾稍减。她演奏的勃拉姆斯、西贝柳斯的协奏曲,在当时曾以华丽著称,是值得珍惜的名贵录音。                                                
   
  吉内特·内芙(Ginette Neveu)在演奏中      
   
  吉内特·内芙(Ginette Neveu)      
   Ginette Neveu (1919-1949) was born in A musical family in Paris. She was a talented French female violinist and one of the most famous female violinists of the 20th century.He began to learn the piano from his mother soon after he learned to walk. At the age of seven, he played solos in concerts. At the age of 11, he won a scholarship to attend the Paris Conservatory.He studied under Georges Eescu and Carl Flesch. In 1935, he took part in the Vinyavsky International Competition in Warsaw and won the first prize.It was played all over the country until it was interrupted during world War II.No other violinist came close to his postwar comeback in London, which set off a wave of neff fever around the world.Neve, who died in a plane crash in 1949 at the age of 30, played with a beautiful, varied timbre and a fresh, delicate sense of syntactic processing.Although Neve's playing career is only a little more than ten years, but the dazzling light has not diminished.Her performance of Brahms, Sibelius concerto, at that time was famous for the gorgeous, is to be treasured precious recordings.      
 
     
       
  皮埃尔·杜坎 (Doukan, Pierre)      
  皮埃尔·杜坎,Doukan, Pierre
法国音乐家,著名的小提琴演奏家。1959- 1972年,他担任喜剧歌剧的第一任主席,1972年担任歌剧的第一任主席。他从1989年开始教授小提琴,是50卷小提琴作品的作者。
Doukan 7/12/1951结婚;1965年6月7日离婚,1967年11月4日再婚。
他于1995年12月10日在法国叙雷讷逝世。
     
   French musician, a famous violin virtuoso. He played the first chair of the Opera Comique 1959-'72, then of the Opera from 1972. He taught violin from 1989 and was the author of 50 volumes of violin pieces.
Doukan married 7/12/1951; divorced 7/06/1965 and made a second marriage 4/11/1967.
He died 12/10/1995, Suresnes, France      
     
         
  皮埃尔•杜坎演奏欧内斯特·肖松《音诗》      
  欧内斯特·肖松
为小提琴和管弦乐队演奏的《音诗》,作品25
皮埃尔•杜坎 小提琴
布鲁诺·马德娜指挥
国家交响乐团
1964年电视播放了ORTF的录
     
 

Ernest Chausson
- Poème for violin and orchestra, Op. 25
Pierre Doukan, violin
Bruno Maderna, conductor
Orchestre national de la RTF
TV broadcast recordings from ORTF in 1964

     
 
 
 
     
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