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                      莫扎特之旅-文化交流-音乐历史上的今天                    
                     
 
 
                   
                     

                   
                     
 
 

 
 

                                    莫扎特之旅 编译文/图 2020-05-22  19:36

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
  威廉·理查德·瓦格纳(Wilhelm Richard Wagner,1813-1883)      
         
 

克里斯蒂安·蒂勒曼指挥理查德·瓦格纳诞辰200周年庆典音乐会

 拜罗伊特音乐节管弦乐团

     
  Festkonzert zum 200. Geburtstag von Richard Wagner
Live-Mitschnitt aus dem festspielhaus Bayreuth
Orchester Der Bayreuther Festspiele
Christian Thielemann
理查德·瓦格纳诞辰200周年庆典音乐会
2013年5月22日 拜罗伊特节日剧院
拜罗伊特音乐节管弦乐团
克里斯蒂安·蒂勒曼指挥
Cast:
Christian Thielemann - Musikalische Leitung
Eva-Maria Westbroek - sopran
Johan Botha - tenor
Kwangchul Youn - bass
Orchester Der Bayreuther Festspiele
Programme:
• Richard Wagner
理查德·瓦格纳:
- Die Walküre, 1. Aufzug
- 《女武神》第一幕序曲
- Tristan und Isolde. Vorspiel zum 1. Aufzug und Liebestod
《特里斯坦与伊索尔德》第一幕前奏曲与咏叹调“爱之死”
- Götterdämmrung. Siegfrieds Rheinfahrt und Trauermarsch
《诸神的黄昏》间奏曲 - 齐格弗里德的莱茵河之旅与葬礼进行曲
- Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg. Vorspiel zum 1. Aufzug
《纽伦堡的名歌手》第一幕前奏曲
     
 
     
  音乐历史上的今天

1876年5月22日,由瓦格纳奠定第一块基石以来,坚持高质量演出瓦格纳全部歌剧作品的信念,至今已成为名不虚传的全世界瓦格纳歌剧音乐迷所热切想往的“麦加圣地”。1976年7月,世界各地约有十万旅游者拥向纽伦堡东北方向的约85公里的 一个小城——拜罗伊特,参加拜罗伊特剧院落成一百周年的盛大庆典。有1925个座席的拜罗伊特大剧院,自从1876年5月22日由瓦格纳奠定第一块基石以来,坚持高质量演出瓦格纳全部歌剧作品的信念,至今已成为名不虚传的全世界瓦格纳歌剧音乐迷所热切想往的“麦加圣地”。

瓦格纳像沃坦那样梦想为自己建造英灵殿——拜罗伊特节日剧院,专门上演自己的作品。科西玛婚后最大的愿望就是帮助瓦格纳实现梦想,他们一起到德刚各地寻找能够实践瓦格纳戏剧和剧院建设理想的地方,当见到拜罗伊特的时候,他们确信梦想已在日艮前,这里既是德国中世纪游吟诗人吟咏的故地,又属于路德维希国王的疆土。最后,在科西玛的鼓励下,瓦格纳夫妇搬到拜罗伊特居住,瓦格纳建设节日剧院,科西玛则亲手设计他们的豪华新居旺弗里德别墅,在这座宫殿里瓦格纳完成了《尼伯龙根的指环》。1876年8月13日,全部四联剧在拜罗伊特节日剧院首演,盛况空前,嘉宾云集,科西玛盛装接待贵客,尼采也来了,但看了一半便拂袖而去,为此,科西玛至死不能原谅。《指环》获得了巨大的成功,也带来了巨额财政赤字,科西玛明白这些都意味着什么。
在瓦格纳最后的岁月里,科西玛成为了他的精神支柱,如果没有妻子的鼓励与支持,恐怕暮年的瓦格纳很难完成《帕西法尔》,那时候,每天晚上瓦格纳都会演奏以前的作品片断给科西玛听,和他们在一起的大多是齐格弗里德。1883年2月13日,瓦格纳去世,这对科西玛的打击很大,整整4个月她闭门不出,然而,新的拜罗伊特音乐节就要到来,除了她没有人能够再组织起一届完美的演出季,于是,科西玛强忍悲痛出面协调,她选中指挥家赫尔曼·莱维出任音乐指导,虽然她痛恨莱维,因为他是个犹太人(受瓦格纳的影响,科西玛也是个排犹主义者)。最终,他们结束了合作。科西玛觉得终于恢复了拜罗伊特音乐节的纯洁性,此后,科西玛亲自担任音乐节艺术指导(1886-1906),她一共与9位指挥家合作过,最后一位是她引以为豪的儿子齐格弗里德·瓦格纳,不过,很可惜他娶了个英国女子,这位女子是狂热的希特勒崇拜者。

今日视频:1、克里斯蒂安·蒂勒曼指挥理查德·瓦格纳诞辰200周年庆典音乐会(拜罗伊特音乐节管弦乐团)2、
瓦格纳的拜罗伊特节日剧院剧场与乐池设计介绍

 
 
 
 
 
   
  理查德·瓦格纳(Wilhelm  Wagner) 在拜罗伊特节日剧院指挥自己的歌剧      
  1976年7月,世界各地约有十万旅游者拥向纽伦堡东北方向约85公里的一个小城——拜罗伊特,参加拜罗伊特剧院落成一百周年的盛大庆典。有1925个座席的 拜罗伊特大剧院,自从1876年5月22日由瓦格纳奠定第一块基石以来,坚持高质量演出瓦格纳全部歌剧作品的信念,至今已成为名不虚传的全世界瓦格纳歌剧音乐迷所热切想往的“麦加圣
地”。
拜罗伊特剧院在风雨飘摇之中能坚持百年之久,主要是富于天才又有不屈不挠埋头苦干精神的瓦格纳家族的功劳。自有拜罗伊特音乐季以来一直是瓦格纳家族成员主持每年一度的盛会。最早的一代是作曲家本人,以及他的遗孀——李斯特的女儿柯西玛;接着是第二代瓦格纳的儿子齐格弗利特与他的夫人威妮弗丽;然后是1949年接班的第三代孙子辈的威廉;现在掌握大权的则是威廉的弟弟沃尔夫冈。他们每一代都继承了瓦格纳的传统,同时又都有大胆的革新,从而保持了瓦格纳歌剧蓬勃的生命力。
一个剧院的发展史也就是一个家族的兴衰史,这在整个欧洲音乐史上也是独一无二的事例。
     
   
  理查德·瓦格纳(Wilhelm  Wagner)设计的拜罗伊特节日剧院外形      
       
  科西玛·瓦格纳(Cosima Wagner)      
  鲜为人知的是,今天的拜罗伊特音乐节可以说是一位女性的杰作,她就是传奇音乐家瓦格纳的第二任妻子科西玛·瓦格纳(Cosima Wagner)。其传记作者奥利维埃·赫尔梅斯(Oliver Hilmes)说,"科西玛·瓦格纳将拜罗伊特音乐节变成了一个文化、社会和经济机构。这是她的功绩。"
1883年理查德·瓦格纳去世后,科西玛·瓦格纳将瓦格纳生前的这一试验品变成了当时德国社会的聚焦点。赫尔梅斯说,早在那个时候,这里就是明星们会聚的地方,只不过叫法不一样。"为了将丈夫的音乐作品继续传扬,科斯马发明了音乐节主管一职,接管了"绿色山丘"的领导权。不过,在19世纪下半叶,作为女性的她如何做到了这一点?赫尔梅斯介绍说,科西玛是一位法国贵妇人,通晓多种语言,能够和男人平起平坐地交流
科西玛不仅举止不同凡响,她的出生也不同寻常。她生于1837年,是音乐家、作曲家李斯特(Franz Liszt)和法国玛丽亚·索菲·弗拉维吉娜伯爵夫人(Marie d'Agoult)的私生女,从小在巴黎长大。18岁那年,她和指挥家、瓦格纳崇拜者汉斯·冯·比洛(Hans von Bülow )结婚。婚后育有两女,但他们的婚姻却走到尽头。科西玛爱上了已婚音乐家理查德·瓦格纳。两人开始了一段数年的罗曼史并有了三个孩子。最后,科西玛离开汉斯·冯·比洛和瓦格纳同居。他们分别结束了自己的婚姻并结为连理。传记作者赫尔梅斯说,科西玛和瓦格纳的婚史给他们的婚姻打下了深深的烙印。科西玛知道,她给汉斯·冯·比洛带来了很深的伤害。而和对待首任丈夫不同,科西玛将瓦格纳视为半个神。她在日记中详细描述了瓦格纳的日常生活和工作,在瓦格纳去世后,科西玛用拜罗伊特音乐节为瓦格纳立下了一座丰碑。 她主管瓦格纳音乐节直到1906年,之后将这一职位交给了儿子齐格费尔德。科西玛在瓦格纳去世47年后才离开人世。
科西玛的同时代人对她的高贵气质记忆犹新。哲学家尼采写到,科西玛·瓦格纳是我所认识的女性中唯一具有贵族气质的人。但是,科西玛有时也非常冷酷、冷漠。赫尔梅斯称之为"痛苦的综合体"。她从与比洛的婚姻中解脱时已是遍体鳞伤,自尊受到很大的打击。"为了弥补自尊心的失落,她用极端反犹主义作为挡箭牌。音乐和文学研究者延斯·菲舍尔(Jens Malte Fischer)说,科西玛·瓦格纳有着极端的反犹主义观念。"
     
  Less well known is that today's bayreuth festival is arguably the work of a woman, Cosima Wagner, the second wife of the legendary musician Wagner."Cosima Wagner turned bayreuth into a cultural, social and economic institution," says his biographer Oliver Hilmes.It's her legacy."
After the death of Richard Wagner in 1883, cosima Wagner turned Wagner's experiment into the focal point of German society.'back then, this was where the stars would meet,' says Ms. Hermes. 'it was just called something different.'To keep her husband's music alive, cosma took over the leadership of green hill by inventing the festival's director.But how did she do it as a woman in the second half of the 19th century?Cosima was a French lady who was multilingual and could communicate with men on an equal footing, hermes said
Not only was cosima unusual in her manner, but her birth was also unusual.Born in 1837, the illegitimate daughter of the musician and composer Franz Liszt and the French countess Marie d 'agoult, she grew up in Paris.When she was 18, she married the conductor and Wagner admirer Hans von Bulow.They had two daughters, but their marriage ended.Cosima fell in love with the married musician Richard Wagner.The two began a multi-year romance and had three children.Finally, cosima left Hans von bulow and moved in with Wagner.They broke up their marriages and tied the knot.Biographer hermes says the history of cosima and Wagner left a deep imprint on their marriage.Cosima knew that she had deeply hurt Hans von bulow.Unlike her first husband, cosima saw Wagner as a half-god.She wrote a detailed account of Wagner's daily life and work, and after his death, cosima dedicated a monument to him at bayreuth.She ran the Wagner festival until 1906, handing the job to her son, siegfeld.Cosima died 47 years after Wagner's death.
Cosima's contemporaries remember her for her nobility.The philosopher Nietzsche wrote that cosima Wagner was the only woman I knew of who had the aristocratic quality.But cosima can be very cold and cold.Hermes called it "the synthesis of pain."She was black and blue when she came out of her marriage to bulow.To compensate for her loss of pride, she used extreme anti-semitism as a shield.Jens Malte Fischer, a music and literature researcher, says cosima Wagner had extreme anti-semitic views.
     
       
  电影《瓦格纳》中的镜头——瓦格纳和玛蒂尔德·魏森冬克在一起      
  1813年5月22日,瓦格纳出生在德国莱比锡一个小官员家庭。他生下才5个月,父亲便患病死去,继父是一个演员兼剧作家,从小培养瓦格纳对戏剧的兴趣,使他后来创作歌剧时能够得心应手地一个人兼写剧词和音乐。1883年2月13日瓦格纳在威尼斯去世,遗骨移葬在他晚年居住的拜罗伊特。
瓦格纳的艺术天赋从童年开始便已显露。他8岁时已经学会在钢琴上弹奏韦伯的歌剧《自由射手》的片段;14岁尝试写作悲剧;15岁,他在莱比锡第一次听到贝多芬的交响音乐作品,感受到极为深刻的印象。贝多芬去世后,他几乎把他的序曲全都抄了下来。18岁的他“上床时带着奏鸣曲,起床后又去搞四重奏曲,歌曲的部分他唱出来,四部曲他则用口哨吹出来,因为他弹钢琴老没进步”。
1842年,由于德累斯顿准备上演歌剧《黎恩济》,他重又回到自己的祖国。歌剧上演的成功,使他一举成名,被任命为德累斯顿歌剧院指挥,即宫廷乐长,就此进入了他一生中重要的创作时期。他的两部歌剧——《 汤·豪塞》和《罗恩格林》就是在这样的情况下写成的。当1849年德累斯顿起义时,他勇敢地参与五月暴动,在阵地上积极宣传鼓动。革命失败后,他潜逃到瑞士,在苏黎世等地过流亡生活达12年之久。终于在1861年获得特赦和回国的许可,为了表示忠顺,他竭力鼓吹沙文主义,为俾斯麦德国辩护。
     
  Wagner was born on May 22, 1813, in leipzig, Germany, to a small official family.His father fell ill and died just five months after he was born. His stepfather was an actor and playwright who developed Wagner's interest in theater from an early age, enabling him to write opera lyrics and music on his own.Wagner died in Venice on February 13, 1883, and his remains were interred in bayreuth, where he lived in his later years.
Wagner's artistic genius was evident from his childhood.By the age of eight, he had learned to play on the piano excerpts from weber's opera "free-shooter";Trying to write a tragedy at 14;At the age of 15, he heard Beethoven's symphonies for the first time in leipzig and was deeply impressed.After Beethoven died, he copied down almost all his overtures.At 18, he "went to bed with a sonata, got up to play a quartet, sang the parts of the song, and whistled the tetralogy, because he wasn't getting any better on the piano."
In 1842, he returned to his native country as dresden prepared to perform the opera "le enzi."The success of the opera made him famous and he was appointed as the conductor of the dresden opera house, that is, the court music chief, thus entering an important creative period in his life.Two of his operas, "soup hauser" and "lohengrin," were written under such circumstances.During the dresden uprising of 1849, he courageously took part in the may uprising and actively promoted the position.After the revolution failed, he fled to Switzerland, where he spent 12 years in exile in places like Zurich.Finally granted an amnesty and permission to return in 1861, he urged chauvinism in bismarck's defense of Germany as a sign of obedience
     
 
     
  Today in the history of music
Since May 22, 1876, when Wagner laid the first foundation stone, the faith of insisting on the high quality performance of all Wagner's operas has become the "mecca" that the music fans of Wagner's operas all over the world eagerly want to go to.In July 1976, about 100, 000 tourists from all over the world flocked to the town of bayret, about 85 kilometers northeast of nuremberg, for the grand celebration of the centennial of the bayret theater.Since the foundation stone was laid by Wagner on May 22, 1876, the 1,255-seat beret has been a mecca for Wagner's music lovers all over the world.
Wagner, like votan, dreamed of building himself a Valhalla, the bayreuth festival theatre, to stage his works.Corsica after the biggest wish is to help Wagner to realize dream, they together to DE around looking for just to practice the ideal place for Wagner, drama and theater construction, when see bayreuth, they sure that dream had before, gen, here is a German medieval bardic intone places, and belongs to the king Ludwig's territory.Finally, encouraged by cosima, the wagenners moved to bayreuth, where he built a festival theater and cosima designed their luxurious new home, the wanfried villa, in which he finished "the ring of the nibelungen."On August 13, 1876, all four plays premiered at bayreuth festival theatre. The grand occasion was unprecedented. Guests gathered here.The ring was a huge success and led to a huge budget deficit, and cosima knew what that meant.
In the last years of Wagner, cosima became his spiritual support. Without the encouragement and support of his wife, Wagner would not be able to finish Parsifal in his old age. At that time, Wagner would play fragments of the previous works to cosima every night, with Siegfried mostly in their company.On February 13, 1883, Wagner's death, this is a big blow for families, sima, she holed up for four months, however, the new bayreuth festival coming, in addition to her no one has been able to organize the perfect season, so the sima try to broker, she selected conductor Herman levy as music instruction, although she hated levy, because he is a Jew (affected by Wagner, Corsica is a anti-semitism ").Eventually, they ended their cooperation.Families and sima think finally restored bayreuth purity, since then, families and sima personally as a music festival art direction (1886-1906), she totally cooperate with nine conductor, the last one is proud of her son Siegfried Wagner, however, it is a pity that he married a British woman, the woman is zealous of Hitler's admirers.
Today's video: 1. Christian thiermann conducting Richard Wagner's bicentennial concert (bayreuth festival orchestra) 2. Introduction to the design of the bayreuth festival theatre and orchestra pit.
 

 
 
 
 
     
       
  克里斯蒂安·蒂勒曼(Christian Thielemann)      
  克里斯蒂安·蒂勒曼(Christian Thielemann,1959-)是一位德国指挥家,目前是“新生代”指挥家中最炙手可热的明星之一。蒂勒曼是土生土长的柏林人,在他的早年他就已经有很多登台演出的经验。有了20年的歌剧指挥经验,他现在只和少数几个乐团或歌剧院合作,如维也纳国家歌剧院和萨尔斯堡,拜鲁伊特音乐节等等。曾任柏林国家歌剧院艺术指导(1997-2004);慕尼黑爱乐乐团艺术总监(2004-2011)。现任德累斯顿剧院艺术总监(2011年起)      
   
  Christian Thielemann (1959 -) is a German conductor who is currently one of the hottest stars of the "new generation" of conductors.Born and bred in Berlin, thiermann had plenty of stage experience in his early years.With 20 years of experience as an opera conductor, he now works with only a handful of orchestras or opera houses, such as the Viennese opera house and the salzburg and bayreuth festivals.Former artistic director of the Berlin state opera (1997-2004);Artistic director of the Munich philharmonic orchestra (2004-2011).Artistic director of the dresden theatre (since 2011)      
 
     
         
 

瓦格纳的拜罗伊特节日剧院剧场与乐池设计介绍

     
 

瓦格纳为自己的作品上演建造的剧院,从剧场设计到乐池,

无不体现着他整体艺术的理念。

     
   Paganini: endless violin solo by Yehudi Menuhin      
 
 
 
     
  未得原作者编者授权严禁转载www.mt77.com任何内容      
                   
                     
 
 
 
 
                   
                     
 

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