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                                    莫扎特之旅 编译文/图 2020-04-24  20:36

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
  阿尔班·贝尔格(Alban Berg 1885-1935)      
         
 

阿尔班·贝尔格-小提琴协奏曲《纪念一位天使》

     
 

Alban berg - violin concerto "in memory of an angel"

     
 
     
  音乐历史上的今天

1911年4月24日阿尔班·贝尔格(Alban Berg)的钢琴奏鸣曲(Op.1)和《弦乐三重奏》Op.3)在维也纳上演。后者是在出版商拒绝了他的奏鸣曲后一时意气写下的。
阿尔班·贝尔格(Alban Berg,1885年-1935年),勋伯格高徒,与勋伯格、韦伯恩开创“新维也纳派”,表现主义音乐的代表人物。他在作曲技法上的探索为整个20世纪音乐带来了一场革命。
贝尔格一生都住在维也纳,他出生于一个没落贵族家庭。
1904年开始,贝尔格跟随勋伯格学习,此前他几乎没有受过正规音乐培训。学习四年后,他写了作品第一号,单乐章的《钢琴奏鸣曲》。虽然作品的黯淡色调和浪漫主义晚期的忧郁风格在一定程度上受勋伯格和马勒的影响,但作品的丰富素材和无比自信无疑是大师手笔。1910年的《弦乐四重奏》是贝尔格在勋伯格门下创作的最后一部作品,随后贝尔格就彻底背弃了一部作品必须具有一个主调的调性原则。1911年他与Helene Nahowski结婚,这一时期的音乐受到了他们爱情的影响。
1915到1917年间贝尔格在奥地利服兵役,并于1917到1920年间创作了杰作——歌剧《沃采克》(基于格奥尔格·毕希纳的剧作)。尽管音响上极其复杂,但他对士兵沃采克充满同情与人性的描绘,强烈的戏剧张力几乎令人无法承受,深深地感染了观众。
1925年贝尔格完成为钢琴、小提琴和13件木管乐器而作的《室内协奏曲》,1935年贝尔格受委约创作《小提琴协奏曲》,纪念马勒遗孀阿尔玛与建筑师瓦尔特·格罗皮乌斯(Walter Gropius)的女儿玛侬。贝尔格还将巴赫众赞歌《我心满足》(Es ist genug)写入最后乐章,形成动人的挽歌,作品很快完成。但是他再也听不到自己作品的演出:1935年12月,贝尔格死于败血症,《小提琴协奏曲》成了他的安魂曲。
贝尔格重要作品还包括《璐璐》、《抒情组曲》等。

今日视频:1、伊莎贝尔·福斯特演奏
阿尔班·贝尔格小提琴协奏曲《纪念一位天使》;2、巴伦博伊姆指挥布列兹室内乐团演奏贝尔格《室内协奏曲》。

 
 
 
 
 
   
  阿尔班·贝尔格(Alban Berg      
  Today in the history of music
 On 24 April 1911, Alban Berg's piano sonata (op. 1) and string trio op. 3) were performed in Vienna.The latter was written in the heat of the moment after the publisher rejected his sonata.
 Alban Berg (1885-1935), a scholar of schoenberg, founded the "new Viennese school" with schoenberg and webborn, a representative of expressionist music.His exploration of composition techniques revolutionized music throughout the 20th century.
 Berg lived in Vienna all his life and was born into a family of declining aristocrats.
 Beginning in 1904, berg studied with schoenberg and had little formal musical training.After four years of study, he wrote opus no. 1, a one-movement piano sonata.Although schoenberg and mahler influenced the dark tones and the melancholy style of the late romanticism to some extent, the rich materials and great confidence of the work are undoubtedly masterful.The string quartet of 1910 was berge's last work under schoenberg, and then berge completely abandoned the principle that a work must have a dominant tone.He married Helene Nahowski in 1911, a time when music was influenced by their love.
 Berg served in the army in Austria from 1915 to 1917 and wrote his masterpiece, the opera woetzek (based on georg pichina's play), from 1917 to 1920.Despite the sheer complexity of the sound, his sympathetic and human portrayal of the soldier woetzek, with a dramatic intensity that is almost unbearable, deeply touches the audience.
 In 1925 he completed the "chamber concerto" for piano, violin and 13 woodwind instruments. In 1935 he was commissioned to compose the "violin concerto" in memory of mahler's widow Alma and manon, the daughter of the architect Walter Gropius.Berg also included Bach's hymn "Es ist genug" in the last movement, forming a moving elegy, which was soon completed.But he never heard his work performed again: in December 1935, after berg died of septicaemia, "the violin concerto" became his requiem.
 His important works also include lulu and lyrical suite.
 Video of the day: 1. Alban berg - violin concerto "in memory of an angel"; 2.2. Barenboim conducts the boulez chamber orchestra in berge's chamber concerto.
  
 

 
 
 
       
  1925年伍兹克柏林首演前夕,阿尔班和妻子海伦      
  Alban and wife Helene on the eve of Wozzeck’s Berlin premiere, 1925      
       
  阿尔班·贝尔格(Alban Berg )的伴侣      
  汉娜·富克斯-罗贝丁(1896-1964)(原名韦费尔)是弗朗茨·韦费尔的妹妹,弗朗茨·韦费尔是赫伯特·富克斯-罗贝丁的妻子,阿尔班·贝格的情妇。贝格秘密而神秘地把他的抒情组曲献给了她。

 汉娜出生在布拉格(当时是奥匈帝国的一部分),在鲁道夫•威尔费尔(Rudolf Werfel)的三个孩子中排行老二。威尔费尔是一位富有的手套和皮革制品制造商。她的母亲,Albine Kusee,是一个磨坊主的女儿。她的哥哥弗朗茨出生于1890年,姐姐玛丽安·阿马利亚出生于1899年。她父亲的祖先是德国的波希米亚犹太人,包括曾在拿破仑俄国战役中担任信使的曾祖父。她的祖父来到布拉格,在那里他赚了一大笔钱,却赔了一大笔钱。他的儿子(汉娜的父亲)重建了家庭财富。汉娜在新城里玛丽恩大街的一所时髦的房子里长大,孩子们是由一位名叫芭比的捷克天主教妇女抚养长大的。爸爸会带着孩子们去教堂,全家人经常去麦塞尔犹太教堂。Werfels是被同化了的犹太人,他们对音乐和戏剧有浓厚的兴趣,经常去听。

汉娜嫁给了赫伯特·福奇斯-罗贝丁,生了两个孩子:蒙佐(1917年出生)和多萝西娅(被称为渡渡鸟)。汉娜的绰号是“莫平卡”。她的丈夫是一位布拉格实业家,对音乐有着极大的热情。
1925年5月,汉娜开始与丈夫的朋友阿尔班·伯格有染。在接下来的一年里,伯格写了他的抒情组曲,这组曲结合了他的首字母和汉娜(HF)的首字母,以及亚历山大·冯·泽姆林斯基(Alexander von Zemlinsky)的抒情交响曲的旋律,这首曲子最初的歌词是“你是我的”。bb0他给了汉娜一份带注释的乐谱,汉娜把乐谱遗赠给了她的女儿多萝西娅。这个乐谱现在保存在奥地利国家图书馆。注释部分如下:
我的汉娜,它也给了我其他的自由!例如,秘密地将我们的首字母HF和AB插入音乐中,并将每个动作和每个动作的每个部分与我们的数字10和23联系起来。我已经把这些,以及许多其他的意思写进了乐谱里。愿它成为伟大爱情的小小纪念碑。

1976年,伯格写给汉娜的14封信在她的文件中被发现。其中一些是由西奥多·阿多诺和阿尔玛·马勒-韦费尔携带的
汉娜和赫伯特逃离布拉格,作为犹太人躲避纳粹的迫害,搬到纽约市。她的丈夫于1949年去世,享年63岁。她比他多活了15年。

     
  Hanna Fuchs-Robettin (1896-1964) (née Werfel) was the sister of Franz Werfel, wife of Herbert Fuchs-Robettin, and mistress of Alban Berg. Berg secretly and cryptically dedicated his Lyric Suite to her. (The photo of Hanna is courtesy of Dorothea Robettin)

Born in Prague (then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire), Hanna was the second of three children of Rudolf Werfel, a wealthy manufacturer of gloves and leather goods. Her mother, Albine Kusee, was the daughter of a mill owner. Her brother Franz was born in 1890 and her sister Marianne Amalie was born in 1899.[1] Her father's ancestors were German-Bohemian Jews, including a great grandfather who had served in Napoleon's Russian campaign as a courier. Her grandfather had come to Prague where he made and lost a fortune. His son (Hanna's father) rebuilt the family wealth. Hanna grew up in a stylish house on Marienstrasse in the New Town where the children were nurtured by a Czech Catholic woman named Babi. Babi would take the children with her to church and the family made regular attendance at the Maisel Synagogue. The Werfels were assimilated Jews with a strong interest in music and theatre, which they attended often.
Hanna married Herbert Fuchs-Robettin and had two children: Munzo (born about 1917) and Dorothea (known as Dodo). Hanna was known by the nickname Mopinka.[2] Her husband was a Prague industrialist with a great enthusiasm for music.

In May 1925 Hanna began an affair with her husband's friend, Alban Berg.[2] Over the next year Berg wrote his Lyric Suite, which used a combination of his initials and those of Hanna (HF) as well as a melodic quote from Alexander von Zemlinsky's Lyric Symphony, which originally set the words "You are mine own".[3] He gave an annotated copy of the score to Hanna, who bequeathed it to her daughter Dorothea. This score is now in the Austrian National Library.[4] The annotation reads in part:

It has also, my Hanna, allowed me other freedoms! For example, that of secretly inserting our initials, HF and AB, into the music, and relating every movement and every section of every movement to our numbers, 10 and 23. I have written these, and much that has other meanings, into the score for you. ... May it be a small monument to a great love.

In 1976 fourteen of Berg's letters to Hanna were discovered in her papers. Some had been carried between them by Theodor Adorno[6] and by Alma Mahler-Werfel.

Hanna and Herbert fled Prague to escape Nazi persecution as Jews and moved to New York City[7]. Her husband died in 1949 aged 63. She survived him by 15 years.

     
 
     
         
       
  梅纽因曾经录制过贝尔格的小提琴协奏曲      
  阿尔班·贝尔格的小提琴协奏曲《纪念一位天使》介绍      
  阿尔班·贝尔格的小提琴协奏曲总谱头上,有一句题词:“纪念一位天使”。这个小天使是谁呢?是阿尔玛·马勒·韦尔菲尔(Alma Mahler Werfel)的小女儿曼侬·格罗皮厄斯(Manon Gropius)。这事我们从韦尔菲尔夫人给约瑟夫·西盖蒂(Joseph Szigeti)的一封信中可以看出,她写道:“阿尔班·贝尔格宠爱我的女儿,从她出生以来,他似乎一直把她当作自己的孩子。我的女儿,当她长到小姑娘的时候,就愈长愈美。马克思·莱茵哈特(Marx Reinhordt)看到她时大世界剧院》(Grosses Welttheater)一剧中担任第一天使的角色。但是在所有事件安排妥当以前,她患上了小儿麻痹症,这样,她卧病一年,不幸在1935年四月耶稣复活节那天与世长辞了。她没有演成小天使,但是却成了一名真正的小天使。她死后,贝尔格悲痛欲绝,无法完成他自己的歌剧《璐璐》(Lulu),他写了这部小提琴协奏曲,并且为纪念曼侬而呈献给她。它带给我一种忧郁色彩的喜悦。”这部协奏曲本来是美国小提琴家路易斯·克拉斯纳(Louis Krasner)于1935年2月建议阿尔班·贝尔格给他写的。当时,这个意见非常吸引贝尔格,他开始写这作品的提纲。四月份,十八岁的曼侬死了,这就促使贝尔格全力以赴地写作这部协奏曲,他用了他一生中最短的一段创作时间,于8月l1日完成了这部作品。写成后,贝尔格自己从未听过这部作品。1936年4月19日,在巴塞罗那举办的音乐节(I.S.C.M Festival)上才由赫尔曼·谢尔钦(Hermann Scherchen)指挥,克拉斯纳独奏作世上的首次公演。直至第二次世界大战结束,他始终是这部作品的唯一解释者。贝尔格自己在1935年的圣诞节逝世了。或许伯格有一种死的予感,所以加速了他的写作。如今,他的小提琴协奏曲不仅是他最著名的作品,而且可能也是一些伟大的古典协奏曲以后最流行的小提琴协奏曲,也是后期维也纳乐派中最易为人接受的作品之一。有人声称这是曼侬·格罗皮厄斯的性格画,也有认为这是作曲家本人的安魂曲。公认的,它和莫扎特的安魂曲——由于所摘用的众赞歌曲调——以及巴赫和勃拉姆斯最后的创作是极为相似的。      
         
  Above the score of alban berg's violin concerto is an inscription: "in memory of an angel."Who is this little angel?It was Manon Gropius, the younger daughter of Alma Mahler Werfel.We can see this in a letter from Mrs. Verfeil to Joseph Szigeti, who wrote: "alban berg doted on my daughter. He seems to have thought of her as his child since she was born.My daughter, when she grows into a little girl, grows more and more beautiful.Marx Reinhordt saw her as the first day ambassador in the Grosses Welttheater.But before all events could be arranged, she contracted polio, so she lay sick for a year and died on Easter Sunday in April 1935.She didn't play an angel, but she became a real one.After her death, berge was too devastated to finish his own opera, "Lulu," a violin concerto he wrote and presented to manon in her memory.It gives me a melancholy joy."The concerto was originally written in February 1935 by the American violinist Louis Krasner, who suggested that alban berg write it for him.At the time, this idea was so appealing to berg that he began to write an outline of the work.The death of manon in April at the age of 18 prompted berg to devote himself to writing the concerto, which he completed on August 1st in the shortest period of his life.After writing it, berg himself never heard of it.On April 19, 1936, the I.S.C.M. Festival in Barcelona was conducted by Hermann Scherchen, and krasner made his solo debut.He remained the sole interpreter of the work until the end of the second world war.Berg himself died on Christmas day 1935.Perhaps berg's sense of mortality accelerated his writing.Today, his violin concerto is not only his most famous work, but probably the most popular violin concerto since some of the great classical concertos, and one of the most acceptable works of the late Viennese school.Some claimed it was a portrait of manon gropius, others that it was the composer's own requiem.It is acknowledged that it bears a close resemblance to Mozart's requiem - due to the tune of the hymn - and to the final compositions of Bach and Brahms.      
         
 
 
       
  伊莎贝尔·福斯特(Isabelle Faust)      
  伊莎贝尔·福斯特
《评论中的一周》,作品218:伊莎贝尔·福斯特;Vilde Frang;约书亚贝尔
·为了促进对现场小提琴表演的报道,Violinist.com每周提供世界各地著名音乐会和独奏会的评论链接。
伊莎贝尔·福斯特(Isabelle Faust)与克利夫兰交响乐团(Cleveland Orchestra)合作演出了《门德尔松》(Mendelssohn)。
诚实商人:“小提琴手……展现了惊人的活力,诗人的遣词造句,以及在任何情况下都会让人瞠目结舌的纯粹的技术精湛程度。”
《评论中的一周》,作品218:伊莎贝尔·福斯特;Vilde Frang;约书亚贝尔
·为了促进对现场小提琴表演的报道,Violinist.com每周提供世界各地著名音乐会和独奏会的评论链接。
伊莎贝尔·福斯特(Isabelle Faust)与克利夫兰交响乐团(Cleveland Orchestra)合作演出了《门德尔松》(Mendelssohn)。
诚实商人:“小提琴手……展现了惊人的活力,诗人的遣词造句,以及在任何情况下都会让人瞠目结舌的纯粹的技术精湛程度。”

伊莎贝尔·福斯特是上世纪90年代出现的一代最令人印象深刻的小提琴家之一。 她以出色的技术和强烈的解释本能而闻名。 她通过她深刻而忠实的解释吸引了她的听众,这是基于对作品的历史背景的透彻了解以及她对当前学术的关注。
 

     
   
  伊莎贝尔·福斯特(Isabelle Faust)      
  Isabelle Faust
The Week in Reviews, Op. 218: Isabelle Faust; Vilde Frang; Joshua Bell
February 19, 2018, 2:20 PM · In an effort to promote the coverage of live violin performance, Violinist.com each week presents links to reviews of notable concerts and recitals around the world.
Isabelle Faust performed the Mendelssohn with the Cleveland Orchestra.
The Plain Dealer: "The violinist...evinced a marvelous range of dynamics, a poet's sense of phrasing, and a degree of sheer technical virtuosity that would have dropped jaws in any context."
The Week in Reviews, Op. 218: Isabelle Faust; Vilde Frang; Joshua Bell
February 19, 2018, 2:20 PM · In an effort to promote the coverage of live violin performance, Violinist.com each week presents links to reviews of notable concerts and recitals around the world.
Isabelle Faust performed the Mendelssohn with the Cleveland Orchestra.
The Plain Dealer: "The violinist...evinced a marvelous range of dynamics, a poet's sense of phrasing, and a degree of sheer technical virtuosity that would have dropped jaws in any context."
Isabelle Faust is one of the most impressive violinists of the generation that emerged in the 1990's. She is known for exceptional technique and strong interpretive instincts. She captivates her listeners through her insightful and faithful interpretations, based on a thorough knowledge of the historical context of the works as well as her attention to current scholarship.
     
 
     
         
 

【贝尔格 | 室内协奏曲】Alban Berg Chamber Concerto

巴伦博伊姆指挥布列兹室内乐团

     
  艾伦·伯格:钢琴,小提琴和13支管乐器的室内乐协奏曲。 丹尼尔·巴伦博伊姆方向。 于二零一七年三月六日在柏林皮埃尔-布雷兹音乐厅举行的开幕音乐会上录制。      
  Alan Berg : Concerto de chambre pour piano, violon et 13 instruments à vent. Direction Daniel Barenboïm.
Enregistré lors du concert d'ouverture de la salle Pierre-Boulez de Berlin, le 6 mars 2017.
     
 
 
 
     
  未得原作者编者授权严禁转载www.mt77.com任何内容      
                   
                     
 
 
 
 
                   
                     
 

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