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                      莫扎特之旅-文化交流-音乐历史上的今天                    
                     
 
 
                   
                     

                   
                     
 
 

 
 

                                    莫扎特之旅 编译文/图 2020-04-21  20:36

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
  尼科罗·帕格尼尼(Niccolò Paganini  1782—1840      
         
 

田元演奏帕格尼尼的《第24首随想曲》

     
 

Tian Yuan Paganini, Caprice No.24 in A minor

     
 
     
  音乐历史上的今天

1831年4月21日,在一封公开信中,帕格尼尼徒劳地试图驳斥那些说他与魔鬼合作杀人的报道。“有人......毫不奇怪我能那样演奏,因为他清楚地看见我在演奏‘巫女’变奏时,有个魔鬼附在我的胳膊上指挥着我的手臂,引导我的弓子。”

尼科罗·帕格尼尼(Niccolò Paganini ,1782年10月27日—1840年5月27日),意大利小提琴、吉他演奏家、作曲家、早期浪漫乐派音乐家,是历史上最著名的小提琴大师之一,属于欧洲晚期古典乐派,对小提琴演奏技术进行了很多创新。

帕格尼尼开拓了近代小提琴的演奏技巧,成为名震欧洲的最著名小提琴家。他的演奏技巧高超,表情丰富,情绪激奋,如痴如醉,引人入迷。他常在音乐会上才华横溢地即兴演奏。为了炫耀技巧,他甚至故意弄断小提琴上的一两根弦,然后在剩下的琴弦上继续演奏。他的作品和演奏技巧几乎慑服了欧洲所有的艺术家,如文学大师司汤达、巴尔扎克、梅涅、大仲马,音乐大师肖邦、舒曼、李斯特等,听过他的演奏无不为之激动不已。他对肖邦、柏辽兹尤其是李斯特等人的音乐创作,产生了强烈的影响。

当年的文学家海涅在一篇文章里是这样介绍帕格尼尼的音乐会:
当帕格尼尼重新开始演奏时,我的眼前黯淡下来。曲调没有变幻出明快的形式和明亮的色彩;大师形象被昏暗的阴影所笼罩,他的音乐自黑暗中发出极尖锐的悲叹声。间或,悬在他头顶的小灯以微弱的灯光投向他;只是此时,我才看得见他那了无血色的面容,但他脸上的青春并没有逝去。他的外衣十分抢眼,析出两种颜色,半是黄色,半是红色。他的脚上拴着沉重的镣铐。他的身后隐隐约约闪现出一张脸,其容貌有几分像滑稽的山羊,双手裸露长毛,看起来也像山羊蹄子;时而,我发现这双手伸向帕格尼尼手中的提琴,乐于助人似地拨弄琴弦;时而,他也把持着帕格尼尼拉弓的那只手,使小提琴涌出的越来越痛苦悲伤的曲调声中,伴入了咩咩的赞许笑声。这曲调宛如堕落天使们的歌声,她们因为拥抱了大地的女儿而被逐出天国,带着瘦削绯红的脸蛋隆降下人间尘世。这是来自无底深渊的曲调,没有安慰,没有希冀。如果天上圣人听见这种曲调,上帝的赞美也会黯然失色,他们将羞愧得无地自容!每当那须臾不肯离舍的、咩咩的山羊笑声伴入提琴曲的悲伤旋律时,我偶尔瞥见背景中也有一群小个子丑陋女人,她们狡黠、诙谐地点着头,面带幸灾乐祸的表情,指手画脚地大肆嘲讽。未几,提琴声中逸出了恐惧的音调,一声惊叹,一场抽噎,这声音在人世间从来没有听到过,或许在人世间永远也不会再听到,除非是在世界末日的约撒法特山谷,当法庭的巨大长号奏响,赤身裸体的尸首们从坟墓中爬出来,期待着他们的命运之时……然而,痛苦的琴师突然运出了极为绝望的一弓,以至于脚镣铿锵断裂,那些阴森森的助手连同讥讽魔鬼统统销声匿迹。       

他到处举行独奏音乐会,绝技超群的名声迅速传遍意大利。摆脱了父亲严厉控制的帕格尼尼尽情享受着自由的乐趣。他喜欢追逐漂亮的女性,喜欢大手巴地花钱,喜欢赌博,有时打起牌来会手巴靠演出挣来的一笔数目惊人的巨款输得精光,但却满不在乎!他天生一副古怪、丑陋而又精致的长相,而他拉琴的技巧又那么神妙莫测,再加上他那一连串的风流艳事与放纵的生活方式,于是各种关于他的离奇的故事很快便传播开来。这些奇谈怪论只能使他更加出名!
1839年10月,大师的身体终于彻底垮了下来,人们把他护送到法国南部疗养圣地尼斯。
1840年5月27日,帕格尼尼濒临死亡。天主教会打算利用这最后的机会拉他回头,他们派了一名神父前去为大师举行临终圣餐与忏悔。帕格尼尼不仅坚决拒绝了这一套仪式,而且与天主教开了个最后的玩笑。神父吓得破门而逃,帕格尼尼开心得放声大笑!因笑得太厉害而引起连连咳嗽,哽咽住气管,一命呜呼。
奇特的天才即使在死后也继续经历着奇特的遭遇。由于他生前与宗教势不两立,天主教会下令禁止帕格尼尼的尸体入土埋葬。人们只好将他的遗体涂上防腐剂,送到麻风病院里存放。最后,在巨大的社会舆论压力下,法国有关当局终于批准将已经曝尸4年之久的大师遗体运回意大利下葬。1896年,人们把帕格尼尼安葬在帕尔马新公墓。

今日视频:1、
田元演奏帕格尼尼的《第24首随想曲》

 
 
 
 
 
   
  让·奥古斯特·多米尼克·安格尔(Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres,1780-1867) 的一幅流传非常广的作品《帕格尼尼》      
  安格尔和德拉克洛瓦是帕格尼尼同时代的画家,他们一个是古典主义的忠实信徒,一个是浪漫主义的追随者,他们秉持的是水火不相容的两种美学观点。

安格尔曾经在罗马为帕格尼尼画过像,而且对他的演奏,特别是演奏古典大师们的作品十分钦佩。迪瓦尔告诉我们,幕布打开时,舞台上是空的,没有布景和道具。然后一位瘦高、身穿黑色服装,简直像魔鬼一样的人走上了舞台。大厅里鸦雀无声,令人有些毛骨悚然。然而从他演奏第一个音起,就把听众给抓住了。安格尔表现出颇为佩服的神态。但是当帕格尼尼突然尽情地施展所谓的“产生这样奇怪的演奏学派的绝技”的时候,安格尔脸上露出了愤怒的表情。听众越来越高兴,他却变得更加愤怒了。最后他终于站起来高声喊道:“他不是帕格尼尼!他是个异教徒,是个叛徒!”忠于古典传统的安格尔感觉自己受到了表现主义的亵渎。这位深深扎根于艺术纯净血统之中,主张在艺术中运用理智的安格尔,在帕格尼尼的身上看到了自己理想的对立面。但是在听众席中还有另外一位反应完全不同的画家,那就是安格尔最大的敌人,浪漫主义的德拉克洛瓦。德拉克洛瓦完全被帕袼尼尼征服了。在他的《回忆录》中他这样写道:“在我们面前的是一位创造家!是位真正的艺术家!”

     
         
  Ingres had painted paganini in Rome and admired his playing, especially of the old masters.Duval told us that when the curtain opened, the stage was empty, with no set or props.Then a tall, thin man dressed in black, almost like a devil, walked onto the stage.The silence in the hall was eerie.From the first note, however, he caught the audience.Angel looked rather impressed.But when paganini suddenly indulged in what he called "the stunt that produced such a strange school of playing", angel's face broke into an angry expression.As the audience grew happier, he grew angrier.At last he rose and shouted: "he is not paganini!He's a heretic, a traitor! 'True to the classical tradition, angel felt himself profaned by expressionism.Deeply rooted in the pure blood of art and advocating the use of reason in art, angel saw the opposite of his ideal in paganini.But there was another painter in the audience who had a different reaction, and that was Angle's greatest enemy, the romantic delacroix.Delacroix was completely conquered by paganini.In his memoirs he wrote: "before us is a creator!A real artist!"      
       
  帕格尼尼的24首小提琴随想曲至今仍然是为这个乐器所写的最辉煌的炫技性的音乐作品。这些随想曲大约创作于1801-1807年间,是他年轻时的杰作。——玛格丽特·坎贝尔      
  Paganini's 24 violin rhapsodies are still the most brilliant piece of virtuoso music ever written for the instrument.They date from about 1801 to 1807 and were the masterpieces of his youth."-- Margaret Campbell      
 
     
  Today in the history of music
In an open letter on April 21, 1831, paganini vainly tried to refute reports that he had collaborated with the devil to kill."Someone...No wonder I was able to play like that, for he could clearly see a devil on my arm directing my arm and guiding my bow as I played the variations of the sorceress."
Niccolo Paganini (October 27, 1782 -- May 27, 1840) was an Italian violin player, guitarist, composer, and early romantic musician.
Paganini developed the technique of modern violin playing and became the most famous violinist in Europe.His playing skills are superb, rich expression, emotional excitement, infatuation, fascinating.He often improvised brilliantly at concerts.To show off his skill, he even broke one or two strings on the violin and played on the rest.His works and playing skills almost overwhelmed all the European artists, such as the literary masters stendhal, Balzac, meine, dumas, music masters Chopin, schumann, liszt and so on, heard his performance is all excited.He had a strong influence on the music creation of Chopin, Berlioz and especially liszt.
Heine, the literary writer of the day, wrote in an article about paganini's concert:
When paganini started playing again, my eyes dimmed.The melody did not change into bright forms and bright colors;The image of the master is shrouded in a dark shadow, and his music wails shrill from the darkness.Now and then the little lamp that hung over him threw its feeble light upon him;Only then did I see his bloodless face, but the youth was not gone from his face.His coat was striking, revealing two colors, half yellow and half red.His feet were tied with heavy irons.Behind him lurked a face, somewhat like that of a comical goat, with long, bare hair on both hands, and the appearance of hooves;Now and then I found them reaching for the violin in paganini's hand, plucking the strings helpfully;Now and then he too held the hand with which paganini drew the bow, and baa baa of approval accompanied the increasingly bitter and sorrowful strains which the violin produced.It was like the voice of the fallen angels, banished from heaven for embracing the daughters of the earth, and descending to earth with their thin, rosy faces.It was a tune from the bottomless abyss, without consolation or hope.If the heavenly saints heard this tune, the praise of god would be eclipsed, and they would be ashamed!Every now and then, as the insistent, bleating, goat laughter mingled with the sad melody of the harp, I caught a glimpse of a group of ugly little women in the background, who nodded slyly, playfully, and with a look of schadenfreude, pointed and jeering.A matter of escaping the tone of the fear in the piano, a loud exclamation, a SOB, in this world have never heard this voice, perhaps in this world will never hear again, unless it is in the end of the world were jozabad, valley, when a great trombone playing court, the naked body from the grave to climb out, looking forward to their destiny...Suddenly, however, the agonizing harpsichord carried out a bow of great despair, so that the fetters were broken, and the gloomy assistants vanished, with the mocking devil.
He gave recitals everywhere, and his fame as a virtuoso soon spread throughout Italy.Freed from his father's strict control, paganini enjoyed his freedom.He liked to chase beautiful women, to spend his money, to gamble, and sometimes to play CARDS he would lose all the money he had ever earned by acting, but he didn't care!He was born with a strange, ugly, refined look, and his uncanny skill at playing the instrument, coupled with a string of affairs and an indulgent lifestyle, and strange stories about him soon spread.All this nonsense will only make him more famous!
In October 1839, the master finally collapsed and was escorted to nice, a sanatorium in the south of France.
On May 27, 1840, paganini was near death.The Catholic church intended to use this last opportunity to bring him back. They sent a priest to perform the last communion and confession for
the master.Paganini not only firmly rejected the ritual, but also played a final joke on the Catholic church.The priest broke down the door and ran away. Paganini laughed heartily!Because laugh too much and cause cough repeatedly, choked up trachea, die.
Strange genius continues to experience strange things even after death.The Catholic church banned paganini's body from burial because of his antagonism with religion.His body had to be coated with preservatives and taken to a leprosy hospital for storage.Finally, under the great pressure of public opinion, the French authorities finally approved the body of the master who had been exposed for four years to be brought back to Italy for burial.Paganini was buried in the new cemetery in palma in 1896.
Today's video: 1. Tian Yuan plays paganini's
Caprice No.24 in A minor
 
 

 
 
 
       
  魔鬼附体的尼科罗·帕格尼尼(Niccolò Paganini )的手稿      
  帕格尼尼在维也纳演出之后,就开始到欧洲各地进行演出。1831年3月9日他在巴黎歌剧院举行了人们期待已久的首次演出。关于这场演出有一篇来自画家阿莫里一迪瓦尔的报道,迪瓦尔是由他的老师,新古典学派的领导人安格尔邀请而来的。安格尔曾经在罗马为帕格尼尼画过像,而且对他的演奏,特别是演奏古典大师们的作品十分钦佩。迪瓦尔告诉我们,幕布打开时,舞台上是空的,没有布景和道具。然后一位瘦高、身穿黑色服装,简直像魔鬼一样的人走上了舞台。大厅里鸦雀无声,令人有些毛骨悚然。然而从他演奏第一个音起,就把听众给抓住了。安格尔表现出颇为佩服的神态。但是当帕格尼尼突然尽情地施展所谓的“产生这样奇怪的演奏学派的绝技”的时候,安格尔脸上露出了愤怒的表情。听众越来越高兴,他却变得更加愤怒了。最后他终于站起来高声喊道:“他不是帕格尼尼!他是个异教徒,是个叛徒!”忠于古典传统的安格尔感觉自己受到了表现主义的亵渎。这位深深扎根于艺术纯净血统之中,主张在艺术中运用理智的安格尔,在帕格尼尼的身上看到了自己理想的对立面。但是在听众席中还有另外一位反应完全不同的画家,那就是安格尔最大的敌人,浪漫主义的德拉克洛瓦。德拉克洛瓦完全被帕袼尼尼征服了。在他的《回忆录》中他这样写道:“在我们面前的是一位创造家!是位真正的艺术家!”
帕格尼尼从巴黎继续旅行到了伦敦,在那里也获得了奇迹般的成功。首场演出于1 831年6月3日在海马卡特街的国王剧院举行。“大厅里坐满了听众,但是上流社会的人们没有来;妇女也来得很少……乐池和走廊里都挤满了听众,然而许多包厢却是空的。”《泰晤士报》说帕格尼尼“不仅是小提琴有史以来最优秀的演奏家,而且自成一格”。当时最著名的评论家乔利写道:“这里是一个人面对亿万人之间的关系,而不是只限于与他同时代的关系”诗人雪莱之妻玛丽在写信给她的朋友谈到帕格尼尼时说:“他使我进入了歇斯底里的状态......他那令人难忘的形象,他那全神贯注的面孔,以及他从小提琴中演奏出来的声音都时超凡的。”
     
       
         
  After paganini performed in Vienna, he began to perform all over Europe.On March 9, 1831, he gave his long-awaited first performance at the Paris opera house.There is a report of the performance from the painter amory duval, who was invited by his teacher, the leader of the neoclassical school, angel.Ingres had painted paganini in Rome and admired his playing, especially of the old masters.Duval told us that when the curtain opened, the stage was empty, with no set or props.Then a tall, thin man dressed in black, almost like a devil, walked onto the stage.The silence in the hall was eerie.From the first note, however, he caught the audience.Angel looked rather impressed.But when paganini suddenly indulged in what he called "the stunt that produced such a strange school of playing", angel's face broke into an angry expression.As the audience grew happier, he grew angrier.At last he rose and shouted: "he is not paganini!He's a heretic, a traitor! 'True to the classical tradition, angel felt himself profaned by expressionism.Deeply rooted in the pure blood of art and advocating the use of reason in art, angel saw the opposite of his ideal in paganini.But there was another painter in the audience who had a different reaction, and that was Angle's greatest enemy, the romantic delacroix.Delacroix was completely conquered by paganini.In his memoirs he wrote: "before us is a creator!A real artist!"
Paganini continued his journey from Paris to London, where he too achieved miraculous success.The first performance took place on 3 June 1831 at the king's theatre in seahorse carter street."The hall was full of listeners, but the upper classes did not come;And women were few...The orchestra pit and hallways were packed with people, but many of the boxes were empty.The Times said paganini was "not only the best violinist of all time, but in a class of his own".Joly, the most famous critic of the time, wrote: "here is a man in the face of the relations of millions, not just those of his time."His unforgettable image, his rapt face, and the sound he made from the violin were transcendent.
     
 
     
   
  田元(Tian Yuan )参加爸爸的朋友聚会时演奏中国乐曲《新春乐》      
  田元1999年出生于哈尔滨,3岁半随父学琴,四岁开始登台表演。2009年考入中央音乐学院附小四年级。2014年参加勋菲尔德国际弦乐比赛,获得少年组优秀表演奖;2015年获得中央音乐学院奖学金竞赛三等奖;2016年获得香港艺术节小提琴青年组二等奖。2017年赢得了参加NYO-china中美巡演,以全额奖学金被天普大学博伊尔音乐学院录取。2019年赢得与NYO-china欧洲巡演。2019年荣获美国青年才艺表演艺术节一等奖,并赢得2020年2月26日在卡内基的演出资格。      
   
  田元(Tian Yuan )2017年与NYO-china美国演出前在卡内基音乐厅门前留影      
  Tian Yuan was born in Harbin in 1999. He started playing the piano at the age of four at the age of three and a half.In 2009, I was admitted to the fourth grade of affiliated primary school of central conservatory of music.In 2014, I participated in the schoenfeld international string competition and won the outstanding performance award of the junior group.In 2015, won the third prize in the scholarship competition of central conservatory of music;In 2016, he won the second prize in the violin youth group of Hong Kong art festival.In 2017, she won the nyo-china tour and was admitted to temple university's Boyle school of music with a full scholarship.Won a European tour with nyo-china in 2019.In 2019, he won the first prize of the American young talent festival and the qualification to perform at Carnegie on February 26, 2020.      
 
 
 
     
  未得原作者编者授权严禁转载www.mt77.com任何内容      
                   
                     
 
 
 
 
                   
                     
 

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