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                        莫扎特之旅-文化交流-音乐历史上的今天                    
                       
 
 
                   
                       

                   
                       
 
 

 
 

                                    莫扎特之旅 编译 文/图 2020-03-26  18:36

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
  亨利·维尼亚夫斯基(Henryk Wieniawski 1835-1880      
         
  田元演奏维尼亚夫斯基《谐谑曲与塔兰泰拉》,钢琴:苏子麟      
 

 TianYuan Weiniawski, Scherzo-Tarantella Op.16 

Tian Yuan Violin

Su Zi lin Piano

     
 
     
  音乐历史上的今天

1880年3月31日波兰作曲家和小提琴家亨利·维尼亚夫斯基(Henryk Wieniawski) 在莫斯科逝世。

斯拉夫人对小提琴演奏做出了巨大的贡献。在十九世纪下半叶为小提琴演奏舞台增添极大光彩的是波兰的亨雷克·维尼亚夫斯基。他不仅是十九世纪最伟大的演奏家之一,他那热情的斯拉夫人气质,从一登上舞台就能打动听众,他那迷人的、具有强烈个性的音质能直接穿透听众的内心。他有着非常好的技巧,与他同时代的小提琴家都说,对他来讲简直就不知道什么叫困难。
维尼亚夫斯基的作品流畅而完美。他总共写了二十四部作品,其中d小调的《第二小提琴协奏曲》( Op. 22)成为我们今天最流行的小提琴作品之一。虽然人们认为维尼亚夫斯基的作品主要是用来显示他个人的技巧,但是这首协奏曲和他的两首波兰舞曲以及《传奇曲》却是无与伦比的,它们都属于今天最受人们喜爱的小提琴演奏曲目。
维尼亚夫斯基出生于波兰的卢布林,是在音乐环境中长大的。父亲是一位军官,母亲是钢琴家爱德华·沃尔夫的姐姐。从五岁起维尼亚夫斯基师从扬·霍恩齐尔学习小提琴,霍恩齐尔曾担任华沙歌剧院的乐队首席。后来他又投入谢瓦津斯基门下,谢瓦津斯基是约阿希姆年轻时的老师。
即使是在那样一个神童似乎已经过多的时代,维尼亚夫斯基的进步也是惊人的。他八岁时立即被巴黎音乐学院接收,进入了克拉维尔的班级中学习,并且很快就成为马萨尔的学生。十一岁时,他获得了令人十分羡慕的小提琴演奏一等奖,当时这对一名外国人来讲是极为少见的。
十三岁的时候,他作为一位成熟的演奏家到波兰和俄国演出,都获得了成功,两年后,也就是1850年,他和他演奏钢琴的弟弟约瑟夫一起征服了荷兰、法国、英国和德国的听众。当时的沙俄宫廷是所有伟大的小提琴家们心目中的圣地,1860年维尼亚夫斯基被任命为圣彼得堡沙皇的独奏小提琴家,在此位置上他工作了十二年:
在十九世纪中期,当时一些伟大的艺术家都认为访问美国是很有必要的,这不仅是因为在那里艺术家们很受人们的欢迎,而且还由于在那里经济收入颇丰,1872年维尼亚夫斯基与世界著名钢琴家安东·鲁宾斯坦(一位亲密的朋发),以及一组器乐演奏家一起,首次跨过了大西洋来到美国访问。这次的访问之所以具有历史意义有许多原因。他们所订立的合约是演出两百场,每场收入是两百美元,但是在两百三十九天之内他们的演出不少于两百一十五场。根据哈罗德·勋伯格的说法,鲁宾斯坦抱怨说,艺术家在这种条件下会变成“机器人”,“但愿上帝能保护我们不受这种奴役!”但是维尼亚夫斯基尽管是一位性格非常紧张的人”,而且健康状况不是很好,过去他在圣彼得堡时经常会因病而取消演出,这次“在美国却一场音乐会也没有漏掉。不管他病得多么厉害,他总是设法找到足够的力量,拿着他那把像仙女一样漂亮的小提琴上台演出”。维尼亚夫斯基之肜 以会女口此出人意料的准时参加演出,原因可能是他们的合约上,有着每缺席一场演出就要赔偿一千法郎的条款。
尽管维尼亚夫斯基和鲁宾斯坦是好朋友,但是在这种压力下,他们之间也会出现紧张。他们经常发生口角,在一番激烈的争吵之后,接下来就是很长一段时间的冷战。从维尼亚夫斯基方面来看,争论的主要问题是鲁宾斯坦在节目单上把自己的名字用大号字标注了出来。虽然他们一起演奏《克鲁采奏鸣曲》多达七十余场,而且演奏得如此美妙,使许多人流下眼泪,但是在私下里他们之间的关系是很僵的,而且彼此都不想和解。
当维尼亚夫斯基第一次在美国出现后,一位评论员写道:“维尼亚夫斯基是我们至今为止在美国所听到的最伟大的小提琴家……在目前活着的小提琴家中,也只有约阿希姆可以超过他。”但是在私底下,维尼亚夫斯基酗酒,好赌成性,在赌桌前坐一夜对他来讲简直算不了什么。他经常把自己即将举行的音乐会酬金预先都赌掉了。尽管他过着这样的生活,可是似乎对他的演奏质量并没有什么影响,但是对他的健康却造成了极大的恶果。
1873年维厄当生病的时候,维尼亚夫斯基在布鲁塞尔代替了他两年的职务,而且事实证明维尼亚夫斯基是一位很好的教师。由于正常而有规律的生活作息,他的健康状况有了很大的改进,但是当维厄当恢复健康并且复职之后,维尼亚夫斯基又重新过起他过去的生活,这对他来讲简直是致命的。他在三十多岁的时候,就得了心脏病。四十四岁时他贫穷而孤独地逝世于莫斯科的一家医院里。
关于维尼亚夫斯基和约阿希姆有一段动人的故事。事情的经过是这样的,由于约阿希姆对维尼亚夫斯基一直非常佩服,当维尼亚夫斯基在柏林首演他的《第二小提琴协奏曲》时,约阿希姆就建议他的学生们去听这场音乐会。当维尼亚夫斯基上台演奏时,似乎病得很厉害。演奏只进行了几分钟,他就停下来要求给他一把椅子,好让他继续坐在那里演奏,但是突然一阵剧烈的咳嗽几乎使他窒息,人们赶紧把他扶进后台。约阿希姆立即来到后台,过一会儿,约阿希姆拿着维尼亚夫斯基的小提琴走上舞台,向大家表示歉意,因为他没有穿演出服装,而且也不能能演奏他朋友的这首精彩的协奏曲,但是他将为大家演奏巴赫的无伴奏组曲中的《恰空》。听众对他报以热烈的掌声,当可怜的维尼亚夫斯基摇晃着走上舞台,拥抱约阿希姆时,脸上挂满了感激的泪水,听众的热情更是无法形容。
在回忆录里约阿希姆说:“没有亲自听过维尼亚夫斯基演奏的人,很难想象他的左手运弓技巧有多么好。”约阿希姆不是一位容易说别人好话的人,这话出自他的口是很不简单的。据说维尼亚夫斯基能演奏双泛音、快速的十度经过句、左手拨弦和离弦的连顿弓,而且非常清楚、非常准确。他的运弓据说也是没有缺点的。有趣的是,格罗夫说维尼亚夫斯基是“即使不是第一个,也是最早发现握弓住正确发音中的重要作用的人,这种握弓方式强调食指的作用,以及它平衡运弓重量的能力”这似乎是握弓方式朝着最新的“俄国式”发展的最早的征兆。之后卡尔·弗莱什就提倡使用这种俄国式的握弓,目前大多数人使用的也是这种握弓方式。维尼亚夫斯基还进一步完善和使用了并紧手臂的快速连顿弓。
维尼亚夫斯基有两把非常好的小提琴,但最终这两把琴都不得不因为还赌债而卖掉。一把是人们称为“维尼亚夫斯基”的斯特拉迪瓦里琴,这把琴是斯特迪瓦里七十五岁处在制琴的高峰时,于1719年制作的。舍夫契克听了这把琴,认为在他漫长的一生中所听到过的所有演奏家里,从来没有像“维尼亚夫斯基”这把琴这样的声音。维尼亚夫斯基在他最后一年里,获得了一把彼得罗·瓜奈里制作的小提琴,所有听到过维尼亚夫斯基演奏这把琴的人都说,他那独特的天才非常适合这把难得的乐器的音质。后来这把琴到了胡拜的手中,胡拜多年来演奏的就是这把琴。

今日视频:田元
演奏维尼亚夫斯基的《谐谑曲与塔兰泰拉 》(2015年)

 
 
 
 
 
  Today in the history of music

Polish composer and violinist Henryk Wieniawski died in Moscow on March 31, 1880.
The slavs made a great contribution to violin playing.The man who graced the violin scene in the second half of the 19th century was hendrik vinyavsky of Poland.Not only was he one of the greatest performers of the nineteenth century, but his passionate Slavic temperament moved audiences from the moment he stepped onto the stage, and his captivating, intensely personal tone penetrated them.He had such good technique that violinists of his time said that it was impossible for him to know what a difficulty was.
Vinyavsky's work is fluid and perfect.In all, he wrote 24 works, of which the violin concerto no. 2 (op.22) in d minor is one of our most popular violins today.While viniavsky's work is considered primarily a display of his personal skill, the concerto, along with his two polonaise and "the legend," are among the most beloved violin pieces of the day.
Born in lublin, Poland, he was raised in a musical environment.His father was an army officer and his mother was the sister of the pianist Edward Wolfe.From the age of five, viniavsky studied the violin under jan hornziel, who had been chief of the orchestra at the Warsaw opera.Later he went to work for shevardzinski, joachim's young teacher.
Even in an era when there seemed to be too many prodigies, vinyavsky's progress was astonishing.At the age of eight, he was immediately accepted by the Paris conservatory of music, entered the clavier class, and soon became a student of the massars.At the age of eleven, he won an enviable first prize for playing the violin, a rarity for a foreigner.
At the age of thirteen, he performed successfully in Poland and Russia as a mature performer. Two years later, in 1850, he and his brother Joseph, who played the piano, conquered audiences in Holland, France, England and Germany.The tsarist court was a shrine to all great violinists. In 1860, viniavsky was appointed solo violinist to the tsar of st. Petersburg, where he worked for twelve years:
In the mid-nineteenth century, when some of the greatest artists in all think it is necessary to visit the United States, not only because the artists there is popular with people, but also because of economic income, there 1872 NianWeiNi, with world famous pianist Anton rubinstein (a close friends), and a set of instrumentalist, crossed the Atlantic for the first time to visit the United States.The visit is historic for many reasons.They were under contract for two hundred shows, for two hundred dollars each, but for two hundred and thirty-nine days they played no less than two hundred and fifteen.According to Harold schoenberg, rubenstein complained that artists became "robots" under such conditions. "may god protect us from this slavery!"But despite being a very nervous person "and in poor health, Mr. Viniavsky, who often canceled shows in st. Petersburg because of illness in the past," didn't miss a single concert in the United States.No matter how ill he was, he always managed to find enough strength to perform on stage with his beautiful fairy violin.Mr Viniavsky's wife made an unexpected appearance on time, perhaps because their contract contained a clause that required them to pay 1,000 francs for each performance they missed.
Even though Mr. Viniavsky and Mr. Rubenstein were good friends, there was tension between them under the pressure.They had frequent quarrels, which were followed by a long cold war.For his part, the main point of contention was that rubenstein had put his name in large letters on the program.Although they played the kreutzer sonata together for more than seventy times, and played it so beautifully that many people cried, in private their relations were strained, and neither wanted to reconcile.
When vinyavsky first appeared in the United States, one commentator wrote: "vinyavsky is the greatest violinist we have ever heard in the United States...Of all the living violinists, only joachim can match him."But in private, winiavsky drank too much and gambled too much, and a night at a gambling table was nothing to him.He often gambles away the reward for his upcoming concert.Although he lived such a life, it seemed to have no effect on the quality of his playing, but it did great harm to his health.
When viejo was ill in 1873, winiavsky took his place for two years in Brussels, and proved to be a good teacher.His health was greatly improved by a regular and regular routine, but when vierdang recovered and was reinstated, viniavsky returned to his old life, which proved fatal to him.When he was in his thirties, he had a heart attack.He died poor and lonely in a Moscow hospital at the age of forty-four.
There is a touching story about vinyavsky and joachim.What happened was that joachim had always admired winiavsky so much that when winiavsky premiered his violin concerto no. 2 in Berlin, joachim advised his students to go to the concert.When vinyavsky came on stage to play, he seemed very ill.After only a few minutes, he stopped to ask for a chair so that he could continue to play, but suddenly a violent cough almost choked him and he was quickly helped into the background.Joachim came backstage immediately, after a while, joachim with Slovenia, walked onto the stage of a violin, apologize to you, because he didn't wear a costume, but also can not play his friend this wonderful concerto, but he will play for you Bach without accompaniment suite in the "empty".The audience applauded him warmly, tears of gratitude streaming down the face of poor Mr. Vinyavsky as he swayed onto the stage and hugged Mr. Joachim.
In his memoir, joachim said, "it is hard to imagine the skill of winiavsky's left hand bow-handling without having heard him play in person."Joachim was not an easy man to speak well of others.It is said that viniavsky can play double overtones, fast tenth-passing sentences, left-handed plucking and pulling of a continuous bow, and is very clear and accurate.His bow was said to be faultless.It is interesting to note that grove, Mr Viniar said, is "if not the first, is the earliest discovered with bow correct pronunciation of the important role of people live, this way is bow importance to the role of the index finger, and it balances the ability of the bow weight" this way seems to be holding bow toward the latest "Russian type" the first sign of development.Carl flash later advocated the use of this Russian bow grip, which is now used by most people.Viniavsky also further perfected and used a fast tandem bow with tight arms.
Mr. Viniavsky had two very good violins, but both had to be sold to pay off gambling debts.One was a stradivarius called the winiavsky, made in 1719 at the height of his career at the age of seventy-five.Shevtchek listened to it, and thought that in all his long life he had never heard anything like it.In his last year, viniavsky acquired a violin made by pietro guarneri, and everyone who had heard viniavsky play it said that his unique talent suited the quality of the rare instrument.Then it came to hu bai, who had been playing it for years.
Today's video: Tian Yuan playing Wieniawski's scherzo and tarantella (2015).

 

 
 
 
   
  年轻的维尼亚夫斯基      
  1843年,他八岁时母亲带他投考巴黎音乐学院,这所世界闻名的音乐学院有一条清规戒律,不收12岁以下的外籍学生,在此之前他们曾经拒绝过少年李斯特的入学请求,但是这次院长奥柏破例收下了维尼亚夫斯基。他被巴黎音乐学院接受,进去J.Clavel的小提琴班, 一年后他转到Lambert Massart的门下,1846年毕业时,他以辉煌的技巧和深刻的理解力演奏了维奥蒂《第17小提琴协奏曲》,获毕业比赛第一名,这时他只有11岁,尚不到巴黎音乐学院的入学年龄。      
  In 1843, when he was eight years old, his mother took him to the Paris conservatory of music. This world-famous conservatory had a strict rule against foreign students under the age of 12.He was accepted by the college of music in Paris, in its lavel violin class, a year later he moved to Lambert Massart door, graduating in 1846, when he played by brilliant skill and profound understanding the d foti "violin concerto" 17, got the first place in the graduation game, when he was only 11 years old, is still less than Paris music college school age.      
 
     
   
  维尼亚夫斯基家乡卢布林将他的故居改建为博物馆,专门用来展览作曲家和小提琴家亨利·维尼亚夫斯基(Henryk Wieniawski) 辉煌的历史和业绩。      
   His home town of lublin has been converted into a museum dedicated to the brilliant history and work of the composer and violinist Henryk Wieniawski      
 
     
       
  田元在2020年2月26日来卡内基音乐厅演出室内乐,上一次 是2017年7月23日随(NYO-China)演出交响乐。      
  田元三岁半开始随父习琴,一年后便爱上小提琴,他的学习进展很快,不多时便能在爸爸的钢琴伴奏下演奏古诺的《圣母颂》了,2007年参加哈尔滨教委的三独比赛,受少年宫老师赏识被破格招进少年宫中学生交响乐团。和大哥哥大姐姐在一起协奏了钢琴协奏曲黄河、梁祝和世界名曲,眼界大开。经过两年的艰苦努力,拜师林耀基教授,学于汤伟剑班上,2009年过五关斩六将,一举考上中央音乐学院附小,一年后参加学校优秀生演奏会。10岁在哈尔滨音乐厅举办了独奏音乐会,曾在学校和中外比赛屡次获奖。两次被选入中国青年交响乐团(NYO-China)参加中美巡演和欧洲巡演。2018年以全额奖学金考入美国天普大学,师从世界著名小提琴大师爱德华·施密德博士。      
 
     
   
  四岁田元在朋友聚会时演奏茅沅创作的小提琴独奏曲《新春乐》      
  Four-year-old Tian Yuan plays a violin solo called "new spring joy" by Mao Yuan at a gathering of friends      
  Tian Yuan three and a half years old from the father began to learn the piano, two years after the fall in love with the violin, his learning progress is very fast, soon can be in the father's accompaniment under the performance of the gunuo of the Madonna, in 2007 to participate in the Harbin education committee of the three alone competition, by the children's palace teachers appreciate was broken into the children's palace middle school symphony orchestra.Together with big brother big sister played a lot of world famous music, eye-opening.After two years of hard work, I learned from professor Lin yaoki in the class of tang weijian. In 2009, I passed the five passes and was admitted to the primary school affiliated to the central conservatory of music.At the age of 10, she held a solo concert in Harbin concert hall and won many awards in school and Chinese and foreign competitions.Twice selected to participate in the China youth symphony orchestra (nyo-china) China tour and European tour.In 2018, I was admitted to temple university with a full scholarship and studied under world-renowned violin master Dr. Edward schmid.      
 
 
 
     
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