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                                    莫扎特之旅 编译 文/图 2020-03-02  18:36

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
  贝德里赫·斯美塔那(Bedrich Smetana 1824-1884      
         
 

卡拉扬指挥斯美塔那《我的祖国》 第二乐章 伏尔塔瓦河 Die Moldau

     
  不朽的指挥大师卡拉扬经典指挥系列,1985年柏林爱乐乐团贝德里赫·斯美塔那交响诗《我的祖国》第二乐章《伏尔塔瓦河》      
 
     
  音乐历史上的今天

1824年3月2日,捷克作曲家斯美塔那出生在捷克斯洛伐克南部,当时属于奥地利领土的波西米亚小镇利托米什尔。他从幼年开始学习小提琴和钢琴,而且颇为出众,5岁时参加弦乐四重奏,与别人一起庆祝父亲的命名日,6岁时公开举行钢琴独奏音乐会。然而1831年他们全家搬到英德日赫赫拉德茨时,斯美塔那这个家中排行第八的第一个男孩的命运仍是子承父业——酿酒。
贝德里赫·斯美塔那(Bedrich Smetana 1824-1884)在英德日赫赫拉德茨,年轻的斯美塔那继续攻读音乐,将它作为普通教育的一部分。一开始他就读一般小学,后来转到音乐学校 ,他的部分学费由教堂的管风琴手提供,因为斯美塔那在教堂的唱诗班里唱歌。1839年出现了重要转机:他获准到布拉格音乐学校学习,这所学校是当时的音乐圣地。虽然他在音乐学校的成绩平平,而且不久便搬到了比尔森他的一位表兄那里,但这几年他却埋头钻研音乐——参加弦乐四重奏演出,欣赏音乐会,上钢琴课,即兴创作舞曲,几年后他开始为别人上课,以换取一些微薄的收入。后来斯美塔那的父亲终于成全了他,出资让他回到布拉格潜心进修音乐。他历尽艰难坎坷,有时不得不挨家挨户地教授音乐,除了膳食外,一年能赚上300弗洛林,他还举办巡回音乐会,但未获成功。此后,他决定在布拉格自办一所音乐学校。他得到著名钢琴家李斯特的资助后,此事终于办成。斯美塔那此时才20多岁。1848年捷克争取独立失败,布拉格已不是失败者的乐园,但斯美塔那坚信祖国会获得独立,人民会赢得自由。1856年,5岁女儿的亡故使他悲伤不已(当时他已与一位名叫科拉罗娃的钢琴演奏家结婚),而政治上又备受折磨,在这种情况下,他接受了到瑞典耶德堡担任乐团指挥的职务,以彻底摆脱这种痛苦的环境。
他在耶德堡成绩斐然,在音乐界成了受人尊敬的人物,这是开始进行一些认真的创作,5年后他又回到布拉格。其部分原因是由于他的第二任妻子感到对于一个波西米亚的良家女子来说,瑞典的气候严寒,生活也不太习惯。
1874年,斯美塔那因染上梅毒而失聪,他辞去了布拉格歌剧院指挥的职务,继续从事作曲。然而他的健康状况日益恶化,1884年斯美塔那在一所精神病院谢世。
斯美塔娜一生共写了8部歌剧,均以捷克作品为素材。然而在国外正式上演的惟一一部歌剧是《被出卖的新娘》,它是继《勃兰登堡人在波西米亚》之后创作的第二部歌剧。
人们经常听到的是《伏尔塔瓦河》,这是由6首交响诗组成的《我的祖国》的套曲之一,这部套曲产生于波西米亚农村,充满了民间传说和民间歌曲以及民间舞曲的韵律和节奏。你会发现它的音调很熟悉。它是浪漫派标题音乐的代表作,是伏尔塔瓦河的“写照”,斯美塔那是这样描写它的:
在浓郁的波西米亚森林中有两股泉水喷涌而出,一股温暖而波涛汹涌,另一股冰冷而缓缓流淌。它们的浪涛在岩石的河床上欢快地奔腾,并汇合到一起,在旭日的照耀下熠熠发光。这条林中小溪奔泻而下,变成伏尔塔瓦河,水流沿波西米亚峡谷蜿蜒而过,水量增大后变成大河。它流过密密的丛林,发出悦耳的追逐声,而狩猎者的号角声越传越近。
河水在嫩绿的草地和低地缓缓流过,人们载歌载舞欢庆着婚礼。入夜,碧波闪亮,山林水泽中的虫鸟放声歌唱,河水中倒映出一座座城堡,它们是昔日骑士们英雄事迹和一去不复返的尚武精神的见证。在圣约翰的湍急处,溪流加快,九曲一折……通过怪石嶙峋的峡谷,流入宽阔的河床,以澎湃之势直奔布拉格,流经历史明城维谢格拉德,然后消逝在诗人极目的天际。

斯美塔那还有许多首弦乐四重奏为今人所知,其中自传式的《e小调四重奏》是标题音乐的又一例证。用作曲家的话来说,第一乐章“叙述我早年对艺术和家乡民间音乐的热爱,我的浪漫主义倾向和得不到满足的企盼。这也是对未来不幸的一个预告”。1848年革命使他被迫逃往瑞典。

今日视频:1、卡拉扬指挥 柏林爱乐乐团演奏斯美塔那《我的祖国》 第二乐章 “伏尔塔瓦河”。2、
斯美塔那四重奏团演奏斯美塔那《E小调第一号弦乐四重奏“我的一生” 》。

 
 
 
 
 
       
  贝德里赫·斯美塔那(Bedrich Smetana 1824-1884      
  Today in music history
On March 2, 1824, Czech composer Smettana was born in the Bohemian town of litomischer in southern Czechoslovakia, then part of the territory of Austria.He began playing violin and piano at an early age and excelled, joining a string quartet at the age of five, celebrating his father's name day with others, and giving a public piano recital at the age of six.But when the family moved to herradz, Germany, in 1831, smetana, the eighth-oldest boy, was still making wine.
Bedrich Smetana 1824-1884 in indranath herradz, the young Smetana went on to study music as part of his general education.At first he went to elementary school, then to music school, where his tuition was partly paid for by the church organist, because smetana sang in the church choir.In 1839 an important turning point came when he was allowed to study at the Prague school of music, a music mecca of the day.Although his music school grades were mediocre, and he soon moved to one of bilson's Cousins, he spent the next few years immersed in music-string quartets, concerts, piano lessons, and improvisation of dance dances-before, a few years later, taking lessons for others in exchange for a small income.Eventually smetana's father helped him, paying for him to return to Prague to study music.He went through hardships, sometimes having to teach music from door to door, earning up to 300 florins a year in addition to meals, and making an unsuccessful concert tour.After that, he decided to open his own music school in Prague.The matter was finally brought to pass with the help of the famous pianist liszt.Smetana was in her 20s.Prague was no longer a paradise for the defeated czechs who fought for independence in 1848, but smetana believed that his country would gain independence and his people would win freedom.In 1856, grief-stricken by the death of his 5-year-old daughter (he was married to a pianist named kolarova) and politically torturous, he accepted the job of orchestra conductor in jedborg, Sweden, to escape the painful circumstances.
He did well at jedberg, became a respected figure in the music industry, and began to do some serious work, returning to Prague five years later.This was partly because his second wife found the cold weather and life in Sweden unaccustomed to a good Bohemian woman.
In 1874, after suffering from syphilis and losing his hearing, smetana resigned as conductor of the Prague opera house and continued to compose music.But his health deteriorated, and in 1884 smetana died in a mental hospital.
Smetana wrote eight operas, all based on Czech works.However, the only opera to be officially performed abroad is the betrayed bride, the second opera to be written after the brandenburgers in Bohemia.
One of the most frequently heard pieces is "voltava," one of six symphonic poems that form the cycle of "my country," a Bohemian village full of folklore and folk songs and the rhythms of folk dances.You'll find the tone familiar.It is the representative work of the romantic title music, the "portrayal" of the vltava river, which is described by smeta as follows:
Two springs gushed out of the rich Bohemian forest, one warm and choppy, the other cold and slow.Their waves surge merrily on the rocky riverbed and join together to shine in the rising sun.This stream in the woods cascaded down and became the voltava river, which wound its way through the Bohemian valley and became a great river.Through the dense jungle, it made a pleasant chase sound, and the sound of the hunter's horn came nearer and nearer.
The river flows slowly through the tender green meadows and lowlands, and the wedding is celebrated with dancing and singing.At night, the blue waves shine, the insects and birds sing in the mountains and rivers, and the river reflects the castles, which are the testimony of the heroic deeds of the knights of the past and the martial spirit that is gone forever.In the rapids of st. John, the stream quickens and bends...Through jagged gorges, into wide riverbeds, surging straight to Prague, past the historic city of visegrad, and then disappearing into the poet's horizon.

Smetana also has a number of string quartets known today, of which the autobiographical quartet in e minor is another example of the title music.In the composer's words, the first movement "describes my early love for art and the folk music of my hometown, my romantic tendencies, and my unfulfilled hopes.It is also a harbinger of future misfortune.The 1848 revolution forced him to flee to Sweden.
Today's video: 1. Karajan conducts the Berlin philharmonic orchestra in the second movement of Smetana's "my motherland", "vltava river".2. The Smetana quartet plays smetana's string quartet no. 1 in E minor "my life".
 

 
 
 
 
     
       
  赫伯特·冯·卡拉扬(Herbert von Karajan)      
  赫伯特·冯·卡拉扬(Herbert von Karajan,1908年4月5日-1989年7月16日),出生于萨尔斯堡,奥地利著名指挥家、键盘乐器演奏家和导演。卡拉扬在指挥舞台上活跃60多年。他带领过欧洲众多顶尖的乐团,并且曾和柏林爱乐乐团有过长达34年的合作关系。他热衷于录音和导演,为后人留下了大量的音像资料,包括众多的管弦乐,歌剧录音和歌剧电影,涵括从巴洛克到后浪漫主义欧洲作曲家的作品。其中一些作品,如贝多芬的交响曲还被多次录制。卡拉扬在音乐界享有盛誉,甚至在中文领域被人称为“指挥帝王”。
 
     
  Herbert von Karajan (April 5, 1908 -- July 16, 1989), born in salzburg, was an Austrian conductor, keyboard instrumentalist and director.Karajan was an active conductor for more than 60 years.He has led many of Europe's leading orchestras and had a 34-year relationship with the Berlin philharmonic.Keen on recording and directing, he left behind a vast archive of music, including orchestral music, operatic recordings and operatic films, from baroque to post-romantic European composers.Some of these works, such as Beethoven's symphonies, have been recorded many times.Karajan is so well known in the music industry that he is even known in Chinese as the "emperor of conducting".      
 
       
  赫伯特·冯·卡拉扬(Herbert von Karajan)      
       
  赫伯特·冯·卡拉扬(Herbert von Karajan)      
 
     
 
         
  斯美塔那E小调第一号弦乐四重奏“我的一生”

Smetana - String Quartet No.1 in E minor (Smetana Quartet)

     
 

实况录像,收录于1989年5月布拉格阿格涅斯修道院。

     
  演奏家:吉瑞·诺瓦克·卢博米尔·科斯泰基-小提琴;米兰·史坎巴      
 

 

     
  克裹斯多夫·西拉-中提琴;安乐尼·柯赫特,马列克·伊利耶-大提琴      
         
  Bedrich Smetana - String Quartet No.1 in E minor ("From My Life") Smetana Quartet: Violin I Jiří Novák/Violin II Lubomír Kostecký/Viola Milan Škampa /Cello Antonín Kohout      
 
 
 
     
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