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                      莫扎特之旅-文化交流-音乐历史上的今天                    
                     
 
 
                   
                     

                   
                     
 
 

 
 

                                    莫扎特之旅 编译 文/图 2020-03-19  18:36

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
  傅聪(Fu Ts'ong   1834-)      
         
 

【傅聪】肖邦 升C小調夜曲

Chopin : Nocturne Op.posth in C sharp minor

     
 
     
  音乐历史上的今天

1955年3月19日,傅聪在第五届肖邦国际钢琴比赛中第三名和“玛祖卡”最优奖,欧洲许多人曾为之震惊,认为不可思议。

傅聪(Fu Ts'ong ),1934年3月10日生于上海,8岁半开始学习钢琴,9岁师从意大利钢琴家梅百器。1954年赴波兰留学。1955年3月获“第五届肖邦国际钢琴比赛”第三名和“玛祖卡”最优奖。1959年起为了艺术背井离乡,轰动一时,此后浪迹五大洲,只身驰骋于国际音乐舞台,获得“钢琴诗人”之美名。

钢琴,是傅聪的终身“情人”;音乐,是他灵魂的避难所。
过去,对时间一向吝啬的傅聪,每天近11个小时与钢琴“促膝谈心”,而且绝不允许任何人打扰。
傅聪的情感世界,孤独而多彩,但永远对外人封闭。不过,朋友还是透露了他的一个小秘密。在傅聪卧室的床头,挂着一幅初恋女友的素描画像。那是早年傅聪前往波兰学习时,女友亲笔画好后送给他的。没想到,这幅素描画像竟成了他一生美丽的记忆。
浪漫、唯美的天性让傅聪经历了3次婚姻生活。后来,在钢琴家鲁普的介绍下,傅聪结识了在香港长大的钢琴家卓一龙,两人结婚后,傅聪漂泊的“航船”,才停靠进了平静的港湾。一家四口生活在伦敦,其乐融融。遗憾的是他的两个儿子尽管非常喜欢音乐,却没有继承他的“衣钵”。
三四岁时的傅聪,已能感受到音乐的强大吸引力,显露出对音乐不寻常的热爱。七岁半时被父亲的挚友雷垣发现其极高的音乐天赋,从此傅雷打消了让傅聪学画的念头,转而拜雷垣为师,学习弹奏钢琴。
九岁半时傅聪拜意大利指挥家、钢琴家,时任“上海工部局交响乐队”指挥的梅帕器(Mario Paci)为师。梅帕器是李斯特的再传弟子。傅聪在其门下受教三年。
傅聪于1951年夏再拜苏籍钢琴家勃隆斯丹(Ada Bronstein)夫人为师。傅聪刻苦用功,每天练琴七八个小时,在酷暑天气,衣裤尽湿,也不稍休。而他对音乐的理解也显出有独到之处。
1953年,第四届“世界青年联欢节”在罗马尼亚举行。经国内选拔,傅聪作为中国选手参加“联欢节” 的钢琴比赛,结果获三等奖。当时他演奏的斯克里亚宾的《前奏曲》,曾将苏联选手感动得不禁泪下。
1955年3月,第五届肖邦国际钢琴比赛在华沙举行。来自世界各地的74名选手齐聚波兰首都。傅聪是中国选手,也是音乐资历最为薄弱的一位选手,经三轮比赛,他以与前两名相近的分数获第三名,还获《玛祖卡》演奏最优奖。这是东方人首次在肖邦比赛中取得的突出成绩。虽为第三,但傅聪的演奏魅力,足以使他成为该届比赛之中最引人注目的人物之一。
赛后傅聪继续在波兰就学于杰维埃茨基教授门下,直到1958年底提前毕业。这期间,傅聪曾于1956年8—10月返回中国休假,在北京举行了个人独奏会,在上海与上海交响乐团合作,举行了莫扎特协奏曲音乐会。此外,还在东欧各国许多城市演奏,到1958年离开波兰前,已达五百余场。这些国家的广大听众领略了中国青年钢琴家的风采,傅聪也积累了宝贵的专业钢琴家的舞台经验。
1958年12月傅聪离开波兰,移居英国伦敦。在六、七十年代的二十年间,举行了约2,400场独奏音乐会;与包括耶胡迪·梅纽因、托塔里、丹尼尔·巴伦博伊姆、郑京和等等在内的许许多多国际著名演奏家合作过;录制了约50张唱片;担任过肖邦国际钢琴比赛、比利时伊丽莎白皇太后国际音乐比赛以及挪威、意大利、瑞士、葡萄牙、东南亚等等国家和地区的音乐比赛的评委;演奏的足迹遍及几乎整个欧洲、美洲、中东、东南亚、日本、大洋洲各地。如此广泛、持久、频繁的艺术活动本身,已经是高度艺术成就的证明。他以辛勤的劳动赢得了“有分量的巨匠”的评价。时代周刊亦曾在60年代誉其为“当今最伟大的中国音乐家”。
1959年,其父傅雷被划为右派。女友偷偷写信将发生的一切告诉傅聪,并告诫他不要回来,否则他的艺术就完了!正是这封信,促使傅聪出走。而傅聪因此成为一个世界级的钢琴大家。虽然傅聪没有证实这个“秘密”,但他还是解释了当时出走的原因:“我出走的时候,心情很复杂,因为那时候国内没有艺术,而我离开艺术就没法活下来!”去国千里,傅聪将思国之情与无奈悲哀,全部融化在他弹奏的肖邦乐曲中。1960年,他的音乐感动了诺贝尔文学奖得主赫尔曼·黑赛,黑赛写下一篇名为《致一位音乐家》的文章,还亲自把文章印了一百多份分发给朋友。
1976年,傅聪在中央音乐学院举行了音乐会。同年的12月傅聪再度返国。以后,他几乎每年都回国演奏、讲学,已经到过北京、上海、西安、成都、昆明、香港等地。主讲过肖邦、莫扎特、德彪西等专题,演奏过这些作曲家的以及舒伯特、斯卡蒂等人的作品。还与中央乐团合作,演奏了贝多芬的协奏曲;与中央音乐学院大学生乐队合作,演奏了莫扎特的协奏曲,并兼任指挥;还专门指导过中央音乐学院附中室内乐小组的训练。他的丰富的艺术经验,孜孜不倦的教学态度,博得广大师生及音乐爱好者的赞扬和尊敬。
上了年纪后,他逐渐把练习时间缩短为6小时。他说,自己天生手硬,从小童子功又没练好,所以一日不练就不行。弹琴时,傅聪常常自得其乐,“这是上天给我事业的一种特殊眷顾!”对音乐,他像基督教徒对待《圣经》般虔诚。
年近80,傅聪,这位享有世界声誉的钢琴家说:“我是钢琴的奴隶,更确切地说是音乐的传教士,人生的大半辈子消磨在琴上,太辛苦了!但我还没有退休的计划。”与上海音乐学院签了3年合约后,傅聪定期给钢琴大师班授课。如今“傅爷”的尊称,已在校园内传开。“傅爷”诠释的肖邦、莫扎特、德彪西,有一种让人难以捉摸的深度和古典美。

今日视频:1、
傅聪演奏 《肖邦 升C小調夜曲》;2、傅聪大师课 《肖邦24首前奏曲》 给钢琴家盛原上课

 
 
 
 
 
   
  傅聪(Fu Ts'ong )和父母在一起的岁月      
  Today in the history of music
On March 18, 1927, rachmaninoff performed "piano concerto no. 4" in Philadelphia, but later decided to withdraw his modifications.Critics found similarities between the slow movement theme of the concerto and a children's song called Tbree Btin*ct Rice.
Sergei Rachmaninof was born in Russia on April 1, 1873 and died on March 28, 1943.
He graduated from the famous Moscow conservatory (now the Tchaikovsky conservatory in Moscow).He is deeply influenced by Tchaikovsky in his creation, has a profound foundation of folk music, rich melody, good at epic style of music;The main works are the second and third piano concerto, paganini theme rhapsody, 24 prelude, music and painting etudes, opera "aleco", "the French rimini" and the second symphony, orchestral "dead island", bell and so on.Among them, piano concerto no. 3 in d minor becomes the "most difficult" in piano repertoire due to its difficult difficulty.
The influence of Tchaikovsky, rymsky-kosakov, balakilev, musowski and other Russian composers was seen in his early works, later replaced by a personal style known for its songlike melody, expressiveness and rich orchestral color.
Rachmaninoff composing style with Tchaikovsky is echoed, rachmaninoff's early in the 20th century, a life, armani's older when there has been a phonographic recording technology and lakshmi mani's have their own recording, it will have a very different feeling, all work should be a master of music into what appearance, lakshmi mani's have their own recording, the later has a very good reference.
Rachmaninoff was a pianist who played the piano very well. He was a gigantian. He was said to be two meters tall.
His creative unappreciated, after the first symphony creation very much, he is a heart of glass, others criticize him, he is very discouraged, his decadent depression for years, after the first symphony development until he went to the United States, in his second piano concerto, just knock on the door of success, rachmaninoff like bass, he doesn't like high, so he many piano concerto is very low, especially his second start, is the lowest, not necessarily to be low at ordinary times, he is an imitation of the Russian church bells.
The most difficult piano concerto in the world is rachmaninoff's piano concerto no. 3, which many pianists refuse to play, and when it comes to rachmaninov, he has to mention horowitz, because rachmaninov wrote this concerto for horowitz.Because horowitz was so skilled, few other people could play the concerto.
Many of his works are worth listening to, he is characterized by strong melody, he is a very beautiful romantic composer.
Rachmaninoff's rhapsody on paganini, written in his later years, is even known as his fifth piano concerto, of which the 18th variation was used as a soundtrack in a film, making it famous overseas.
Video of the day: 1. Beautiful Ukrainian pianist Anna fetorona plays rachmaninoff's piano concerto no. 2; 2.2. Russian pianist Dennis mazuyev plays the rachmaninoff piano concerto no. 4.
 

 
 
 
 
     
   
  傅聪(Fu Ts'ong )和第一任妻子及岳父——小提琴大师梅纽因      
  傅聪也跟这位著名的小提琴家的家庭,有了不寻常的关系。他,爱上了梅纽因前妻诺拉的女儿弥拉。在来到伦敦1年零8个月时,傅聪在家书中向父母透露了喜讯,顿时使十多年后,傅聪和弥拉的家庭破裂了。用傅聪的话来说,缘由是“终因东、西方人秉性差异太大”。
聪在极度的苦闷之中,有过一次草率婚姻。他选择了一位东方女性——南朝鲜驻摩洛哥大使的女儿。傅聪的第二次婚姻很不幸。用他自己的话来说:“我们结婚3个月便无法共同生活了……3个月,短暂的婚姻。” 仓促的结合,导致迅速的离异。 傅雷夫妇说不出的欢喜和兴奋。
浪漫、唯美的天性让傅聪经历了3次婚姻生活。后来,在钢琴家鲁普的介绍下,傅聪结识了在香港长大的钢琴家卓一龙,两人结婚后,傅聪漂泊的“航船”,才停靠进了平静的港湾。
     
  Fu Ts'ong also had an unusual relationship with the famous violinist's family.He fell in love with meera, the daughter of menuhin's ex-wife nola.One year and eight months after arriving in London, fu cong revealed the good news to his parents in a letter home, which immediately broke up their family more than a decade later.The reason, in fu cong's words, is that "the differences between eastern and western personalities are too great".
In the extreme anguish, cong had a hasty marriage.He chose an Oriental woman, the daughter of the south Korean ambassador to Morocco.Fu cong's second marriage was unfortunate.In his own words: "we couldn't live together after three months of marriage...Three months, a short marriage."A hasty marriage leads to a rapid divorce.Fu lei couple can not say the joy and excitement.
Fu Ts'ong experienced three times of marriage because of his romantic and aesthetic nature.Later, in the pianist rupp's introduction, fu cong met in Hong Kong grew up pianist zhuo yilong, two people get married, fu cong drifting "ship", docked into the quiet harbor.
     
 
     
   
  傅聪(Fu Ts'ong      
   傅聪(Fu Ts'ong )谈肖邦
演绎肖邦我说不上是权威,我不过是他一个忠诚的追随者。“熟读后主词”,就基本上是肖邦的精神。肖邦的音乐最主要的就是“故国之情”,还深一些的,是一种无限的惋惜,一种无可奈何的悲哀,一种无穷尽的怀念!这种无穷尽的怀念不光是对故土的怀念,那种感情深入在他的音乐里,到处都是一个“情”字啊!这是讲肖邦音乐的那种境界,他其实是一个根植得很深的音乐家。我要是能够再活一次的话,也要像黄宾虹画画一直追求到唐宋以前一样,从那个根子里打基础,再慢慢地“画”出去。黄宾虹活到90岁才到那个境界。我这辈子弹钢琴本就是半路出家,基础很差,要我重新从巴赫再到巴赫以前是不可能了!我平常喜欢听的音乐中钢琴的最少,基本上是跟钢琴没关系的。我最喜欢的作曲家之一是戴留斯,他就从来不写一个钢琴作品(这个说法好像有误?至少戴留斯还有一首钢琴协奏曲——作者注)。因为我喜欢的是音乐,音乐是一个很巨大的无边无限的世界。肖邦古典的根是很深的。他的音乐和声非常丰富,同时对位复调的程度非常高,不像巴赫的,一听就是对位,他的不是,可是又无处不在。可以说,他的音乐里面包含着中国画特别是山水画里线条的艺术,尤其是黄宾虹山水画里的艺术,有那种化境、自由自在的线条……一般人弹肖邦,只晓得听旋律。肖邦的旋律是很美,可是在旋律美之外人们往往忽略掉了它其它声部的旋律。他的音乐是上头有个美丽线条在那儿,下头还有几个美丽线条无孔不入,有很多的表现。除此之外,肖邦音乐还有和声的美。不像一般的弹钢琴,右手是旋律的话,左手就是伴奏,肖邦的音乐里没有伴奏,里头都是音乐,都有丰富的内容。为什么人们都说肖邦是“钢琴诗人”?他的音乐真是最接近于诗!人们都说肖邦一定要歌唱,其实在歌唱之前,肖邦他一定要舞蹈,他的音乐全是从民间舞蹈出来的,每一句都是这样!即使是他的叙事曲,里面都有玛祖卡和华尔兹的影子。他的协奏曲也是这样,比如说第一协奏曲,第一乐章后面有波兰舞曲的影子,不仅如此,开始那个乐队的部分还是玛祖卡呢!很多人包括西方的音乐家都不知道!我说透之后,他们觉得很惊讶,但是仔细一分析,又觉得有道理!除此以外,还有更重要的一点:肖邦要说话!肖邦的音乐跟诗那么接近,好像他在跟你说话。有一首他的E大调夜曲作品62,第一次接触它时,最后那一段我就感觉真是“泪眼望花花不语,乱红飞过千秋曲”(此处引用有误,应为“泪眼问花花不语,乱红飞过秋千去”,原句出自欧阳修词《蝶恋花》——作者注)!“乱红”颜色的感觉真实极了!每次我弹这个曲子就真是那个感觉——泪眼望花花不语!肖邦的音乐那个感人啊!每个人都会感觉到他在对你说话!肖邦真的跟诗是最接近的!
我一说起来就好像每一个作曲家都跟中国的诗有关系,比如说陶渊明就很像舒伯特,贝多芬和巴赫就少一些,但是贝多芬在“苦”这个程度上跟杜甫有点相像。肖邦的音乐真是跟我们中国人的文化很接近很接近,所以这次波兰肖邦钢琴比赛,最让波兰人震撼的并不是某个人得奖的问题,而是整个中国代表团给他们的印象非常深刻,他们认为这些中国人基本上都有那种肖邦的感觉。对肖邦有感觉的人是越来越少了,全世界都很少,因为肖邦那种诗一般的语言和他那种深情在这个世界上已经越来越缺少,那种置生死于度外的执着真是很少很少!
     
  Talk about Chopin
I'm not an authority, I'm just a loyal follower."After a thorough study of the subject," is basically Chopin's spirit.The most important thing in Chopin's music is "the feeling of the old country", which is also a little deeper. It is a kind of infinite regret, a kind of helpless sorrow, a kind of infinite yearning!This kind of endless miss is not only to miss the homeland, that kind of feeling deep in his music, everywhere is a "love" word ah!This is the realm of Chopin, a deeply rooted musician.If I can live again, I also want to be like huang binhong painting has been pursuing to tang and song before, from that root in the foundation, and then slowly "paint" out.Huang binhong didn't reach that stage until he was 90 years old.I have been a pianist in my life, and my foundation is very poor. It is impossible for me to go from Bach to Bach again!I usually like to listen to the least of the music of the piano, basically has nothing to do with the piano.One of my favorite composers is dieu, who never wrote a piano piece.At least there is a piano concerto by dieu.Because what I like is music, and music is a big, infinite world.Chopin's classical roots are deep.His music harmony is very rich, and at the same time counterpoint polyphonic degree is very high, unlike Bach, one is counterpoint, his is not, but everywhere.It can be said that his music contains the art of Chinese painting, especially the lines in the landscape painting, especially the art in the landscape painting by huang binhong, with the kind of free lines...Ordinary people play Chopin, only know to listen to the melody.Chopin's melody is very beautiful, but in addition to the beauty of the melody people tend to ignore its other parts of the melody.His music has a beautiful line up there, and a couple of beautiful lines down there, showing a lot of things.Besides, Chopin's music also has the beauty of harmony.Unlike the common piano, the right hand is the melody, the left hand is the accompaniment, Chopin's music is not accompanied, there is music, there is rich content.Why do people call Chopin a "piano poet"?His music is really the closest thing to poetry!People say Chopin must sing, in fact, before singing, Chopin must dance, his music is all from the folk dance, every sentence is so!Even in his ballade, there are shadows of mazurka and waltzes.The same is true of his concerto, for example, the concerto no. 1, which has polonaise behind the first movement, and not only that, but also mazurka at the beginning of the band!Many people, including western musicians, don't know!When I told them all, they were surprised, but on closer analysis, they found it reasonable!But there was one more important point: Chopin had to speak!Chopin's music is so close to poetry, it's like he's talking to you.There is a piece of his nocturne in E major, op. 62. The first time I touched it, the last paragraph I felt was really "tears in my eyes looking at flowers without a word, flying over the thousands of songs"!The feeling of "messy red" color is very real!Every time I play this song is really that feeling - tears look at the flower flower language!Chopin's music that moving!Everyone will feel he's talking to you!Chopin was really the closest thing to poetry!
It seems to me that every composer has something to do with Chinese poetry. Tao yuanming, for example, is very much like schubert.Chopin's music is really close to our Chinese culture, so the most striking thing for the poles in this Chopin piano competition is not that one person won the prize, but that the whole Chinese delegation impressed them very deeply. They think that these Chinese people basically have the Chopin feeling.There are fewer and fewer people who have feelings for Chopin, all over the world, because Chopin's poetic language and his kind of deep feeling in this world has been increasingly lacking, the kind of life and death on the outside of the perseverance is very few!

 
     
 
     
       
  傅雷Fu lei      
  傅雷(1908年4月7日-1966年9月3日),字怒安,号怒庵,生于原江苏省南汇县下沙乡(今上海市浦东新区航头镇),中国翻译家、作家、教育家、美术评论家,中国民主促进会(民进)的重要缔造者之一。 [1]
傅雷早年留学法国巴黎大学。他翻译了大量的法文作品,其中包括巴尔扎克、罗曼·罗兰、伏尔泰等名家著作。20世纪60年代初,傅雷因在翻译巴尔扎克作品方面的卓越贡献,被法国巴尔扎克研究会吸收为会员。傅雷在“文化大革命”之初,受到巨大迫害。1966年9月3日凌晨,愤而离世,夫人朱梅馥亦自缢身亡。
他的全部译作,经家属编定,交由安徽人民出版社编成《傅雷译文集》,从1981年起分15卷出版,现已出齐。
 
     
  Fu lei (April 7, 1908 -- September 3, 1966), styled nu 'an and styled nu 'an, was born in xiasha township, nanhui county, jiangsu province (now hangtou town, pudong new area, Shanghai).[1]
 Fu lei studied in Paris university in his early years.He translated a large number of French works, including Balzac, romain rolland, voltaire and other famous works.In the early 1960s, for his outstanding contribution to the translation of Balzac's works, he was admitted as a member of the Balzac research institute in France.Fu lei suffered great persecution at the beginning of the "cultural revolution".September 3, 1966 early morning, anger and died, his wife zhu meifu also hanged himself.
 All his translated works were compiled by his family and compiled by anhui people's publishing house into fu lei's translated anthology, which has been published in 15 volumes since 1981.
     
         
 

傅聪大师课(肖邦24首前奏曲) 给钢琴家盛原上课

     
  自我表现的大师课      
  首先从根上说,傅聪是借着大师班自我表现一把,而并没把所授学生琴艺提高当成最高目的。他只讲他熟的曲目。以前我听的大师课,如帕尔曼、斯特恩、阿什肯纳吉、阿卡多、杜梅、迪图瓦等,都是学生演奏什么曲目大师就讲什么曲目。那次阿什肯纳吉的大师课上,最后一个出场的学生是研究生黄亚蒙,他弹的是梅西安的一个作品,阿什肯纳吉表示这个曲子不熟,亲自上琴摸了几下,然后才给黄亚蒙一些意见。傅聪上课是点曲目,比如他最后一次课要上肖邦的《二十四首前奏曲》,于是学生原丁就突击抢练三天,以应付上傅聪大师课之需。而有的学生原定该上他的课。只因所弹曲目不在傅聪点的范围,就白白第失去了首大师亲炙的机会。10岁的王羽佳弹肖邦的《船歌》,傅聪给她讲肖邦音乐的神秘感,轻灵的微妙变化,还说肖邦的句法为什么要这样分那样分,都能找出他的心理依据。“音符是死的,伟大的音乐每一刻都有微妙的变化。”小姑娘紧张地茫然地望着傅聪,傅聪总结似的说“总而言之,你懂我的意思了。”其实底下在坐的300多成人中有的未必都明白这些句法依据是肖邦什么心理,更别提10岁的孩子了。但这样上课却有大师班的效果。从旁听人的掌声和经常的笑声中能看出来。      
  A master class in self-expression
First of all, fu cong showed himself through the master class, and did not regard the improvement of the students' skills as the highest goal.He spoke only of the repertoire he knew.In the old master classes I attended, such as perlman, stern, ashkenazi, arcadio, dume, dittuva, all the students played what the master said.In ashkenazi's master class, the last student to appear was a graduate student named huang yameng, who played a work by messien. Ashkenazi said he was not familiar with the music and touched the piano several times before giving huang some advice.For example, his last class was Chopin's "twenty-four prelude", so the students rushed to practice for three days to meet the needs of fu cong's master class.Some students were supposed to take his class.Because the repertoire is not in the range of fu cong point, the first lost the opportunity to master for nothing.When 10-year-old wang yujia played Chopin's barnyard song, fu cong told her about the mystery of Chopin's music, the subtle changes of lightness, and the psychological basis for why Chopin's syntax should be divided in one way or another."The notes are dead, and great music has subtle variations from moment to moment."The little girl looked at fu cong nervously and blankly. Fu cong summed up and said, "in a word, you know what I mean."Not all of the 300 or so adults sitting at the bottom of the room, let alone a 10-year-old, understand what Chopin's psychology is behind this syntax.But it has the effect of a master class.You can see it in the audience's applause and regular laughter.

 
     
 
 
 
     
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