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                                     田润德 编译 文/图 2020-02-03  19:36



  艾克托尔·柏辽兹(Hector Louis Berlioz 1803-1869)      


1844年2月3日,柏辽兹(Hector Berlioz)没有彩排就指挥演出了《罗马狂欢节》(Roman Carnival)。“观看柏辽兹的(第一次)演出真是让人难忘的景象。他的目光审视着庞大乐团里的每一个演奏者,他的节拍有力,他的指示明察秋毫,无可挑剔,所以序曲部分进行得十分顺利。”(查尔斯·哈雷爵士语)

艾克托尔·柏辽兹(Hector Louis Berlioz,1803年12月11日—1869年3月8日)是19世纪上半叶法国音乐最伟大的代表者、作曲家、指挥家兼音乐评论家。1803年12月11日他出生在法国南部小城科特·圣安德列。从来没有想到要让孩子以音乐为专业的父亲是当地一位有名的医生,对柏辽兹自幼就已显露的音乐才能根本就不屑一顾。作为虔诚教徒的母亲,虽然注意到了孩子的音乐天赋,但她认为搞音乐是有罪的,这种偏见最终没有能使柏辽兹尽早接受音乐教育。因此,尽管柏辽兹热爱音乐,但在17岁之前,却从未接受过正规的音乐教育。第一次参加圣餐仪式时,教堂唱诗班歌唱的一首赞美诗,在他心里留下了第一个生动美好的印象,在他面前展现出一个“爱与感情的新世界”。
晚年,他患肠疾,依然得四处奔波。1867年,更大的打击向他袭来,他的儿子死于哈瓦那。柏辽兹从身体到精神彻底崩溃了,1 8 6 9年3月8日,柏辽兹在巴黎孤单地死去,死时身边没有一个亲人。他的遗体由古诺、托玛和其他一些著名音乐家护送,在《葬礼与凯旋》大交响曲中的《葬礼进行曲》的音乐声中入葬。

柏辽兹的创作活动,早在他到巴黎之前便已开始,但他在那时写出的一些室内乐作品,并未为出版商所采用。1826年进巴黎音乐学院后,他还陆续写出大合唱《爱米莉娅与唐克莱特》、戏剧《浮土德》配乐和根据托玛斯·莫尔的诗写成的《爱尔兰歌曲九首》等,1830年为了得到心爱的情人以大合唱《萨达纳帕尔》获得罗马大奖,因此有机会到罗马在美第奇别墅住上一个时期。但是,柏辽兹的创作成熟时期却在1830年到1846年之间,是在法国历史上最动荡的1 9世纪30年代写出的。1848年,柏辽兹的创作生命实际上已近结束。由于受生活的折磨,再加上年老多病,柏辽兹避开当代重大的课题,明显转向古代的题材和抽象的道义,有希冀从宗教去寻找解脱的倾向。柏辽兹的最后作品,是在1860~1862年间根据莎±比亚的喜剧《无事生非》写出的喜歌剧《贝特丽丝与培尼狄克》。




  Today in music history
On Feb. 3, 1844, Hector Berlioz conducted a performance of the Roman Carnival without rehearsals."It was an unforgettable sight to see Berlioz perform [for the first time].His eyes scrutinised every player in the great orchestra, his tempo was strong, his instructions impeccable, and so the overture went very well."(Sir Charles Halley)
Hector Louis Berlioz (December 11, 1803 -- March 8, 1869) was the greatest representative, composer, conductor and music critic of French music in the first half of the 19th century.He was born on December 11, 1803, in the small town of cote d 'andres in the south of France.It never occurred to him that the father, a famous local doctor, who wanted his son to specialize in music, was contemptuously dismissive of Berlioz's musical talents, which had been evident since childhood.The pious mother, though aware of her child's musical talent, considered music sinful, a prejudice that ultimately failed to bring Berlioz into early musical education.As a result, despite his love of music, Berlioz had no formal musical education until the age of 17.At his first communion, a hymn sung by the church choir left the first vivid and beautiful impression in his mind, revealing to him a "new world of love and affection."
In his later years, he suffered from an intestinal disease and still had to travel.In 1867, an even greater blow hit him, and his son died in Havana.Berlioz had a complete physical and mental breakdown. On March 8, 1869, Berlioz died alone in Paris, without a relative.His body was escorted by cournot, toma and other famous musicians and buried to the music of the funeral march in the grand symphony funeral and return.
Berlioz had two unhappy marriages.In 1833 he married, through bitter experience, the madman miss Smith.But all that followed was happiness and strife, and after nine years of conflict and friction, tolerance and restraint, he ended his legendary hard-won marriage with a bitter divorce.After that, Berlioz lived a lonely bachelor life.
In 1854, Berlioz married for the second time, and, like his previous marriage, it was an unhappy one.His wife, Mary, was sickly, making Berlioz's financial situation even worse.The death of Mary in 1862 was a great blow to him.
In 1821, Berlioz reluctantly complied with his father's decision to study medicine in Paris.When he first entered the autopsy room and looked at the bleeding limbs and entrails, he jumped out of the window like mad, vomiting with nausea.But when he entered the Paris opera house, the masterpieces thrilled him as if he had gone to heaven.In 1824, when he had actually completed his medical course and received his bachelor's degree in medicine, he resolutely decided to change his profession.
Berlioz's creative activities began long before he arrived in Paris, but some of the chamber music he wrote at that time was not adopted by publishers.After into the college of music in Paris in 1826, he has been writing chorus "love miriya and tang clay", plays the aggradation DE soundtrack, and according to Thomas Moore's poem written in nine of the Irish songs, etc., in 1830 in order to get his beloved lover in chorus ", Dana pearl "won the award, so have the opportunity to Rome in the Medici villa living on a period.But Berlioz's writing reached maturity between 1830 and 1846, during one of the most turbulent periods in French history, the 1830s.In 1848, Berlioz's creative life was virtually over.Tormented by life, and by old age and illness, Berlioz turned away from the great subjects of the day, apparently turning to ancient themes and abstract principles, and tending to seek relief from religion.Berlioz's last work, written between 1860 and 1862, was the comic opera beatrice and Benedict, based on Shakespeare's comedy much ado about nothing.
Video of the day: 1、Sir Simon rutter conducting Berlioz's symphony of the imagination (1993).2、Valery halilov, Russian military music director, conducting Berlioz's funeral and triumphant symphony.

  柏辽兹写作《幻想交响曲》是为了这位女伶丝密荪(Harriet Smithson)      
1827年的一个秋夜,柏辽兹在巴黎剧院观看一个英国剧团演出的莎士比亚悲剧,当奥菲利亚的扮演者、该团著名女演员享利艾特·丝密荪登台时,柏辽兹被她那非凡的风度和美貌迷住了,就此陷入了单相思的苦恼之中。经过长时间的思念和叹息,他终于壮着胆儿向丝密荪发出几封求爱的信,都遭到拒绝。从此, 柏辽兹如同堕入云层,日夜幻想着这位女神的倩影。这场痛苦的体验激起了作曲家狂热的创作热情,写下了他平生第一部重要的大型作品——《幻想交响曲》。 1832年10月,丝密荪又随团来到巴黎,虽然她的声望已远不如当年,而且到处负债,但是柏辽兹还是痴情于她。他花了一大笔庞大的费用组织了一次音乐会,特意邀请丝密荪聆听他的《幻想交响曲》,并亲自任乐队定音鼓手,当时在场的海涅曾幽默地记载道:“当他们俩的视线相遇时,柏辽兹就象狂人那样猛击定音鼓。”丝密荪被柏辽兹的诚意感动了,两人不久结成了夫妻,“幻想”终于成为现实。但9年后,他们痛苦地结束了这场来之不易的传奇式婚姻。

  Symphony of fantasy (op.14)
One autumn night in 1827, Berlioz was watching an English company perform a Shakespeare tragedy in a Paris theater. When the famous actress herry @ silmisun, who played the role of ophelia, appeared on the stage, Berlioz was so captivated by her extraordinary grace and beauty that he fell into an agony of unfeeling love.After a long yearning and sighing, he finally emboldened himself to send her several letters of courtship, but they were all rejected.From then on, as if falling into the clouds, Berlioz dreamed of the goddess day and night.This painful experience inspired the composer to write his first important large-scale work, the symphony of fantasy.In October 1832, she returned to Paris with the regiment, and although her reputation was much lower and she was in debt, Berlioz was still in love with her.He organized a concert at a large expense, invited silmi-sun to hear his symphony of fantasy, and served as the timpani player in the orchestra. Heine, who was present, noted humorously, "when their eyes met, Berlioz beat the timpani like a madman."< / p > < p > silk is moved by Berlioz's sincerity, two people soon became husband and wife, "fantasy" finally become reality.But nine years later, they ended their legendary, hard-won marriage in bitter pain.


柏辽兹《安魂曲》杜达梅尔指挥 2014年巴黎圣母院 纪念克劳迪奥·阿巴多逝世

  Hector Berlioz (1803-1869) Grande Messe des morts (Requiem), Op.5 (1837) Notre-Dame de Paris, January 22, 2014 艾克托尔·柏辽兹:安魂曲 (纪念亡灵大弥撒) 2014年1月22日于巴黎圣母院 Orchestre Philharmonique de Radio France Simón Bolívar Symphony Orchestra Radio France Chorus Maîtrise Notre Dame de Paris Conducted by Gustavo Dudamel 法国广播爱乐乐团西蒙·玻利瓦尔交响乐团法国广播合唱团巴黎圣母院合唱团古斯塔沃·杜达梅尔指挥 In Memorial Claudio Abbado (1933-2014) 纪念克劳迪奥·阿巴多 Introit 1. 安魂咏与慈悲经(Requiem aeternam & Kyrie: Introitus) Sequence 2. 震怒之日(Dies irae: Prosa, Tuba mirum) 3. 我这不幸的人(Quid sum miser) 4. 威严的君王(Rex tremendae) 5. 寻找我(Quaerens me) 6. 落泪之日(Lacrimosa) Offertory 7. 主耶稣基督(Domine Jesu Christe) 8. 牺牲与祈祷(Hostias) 9. 圣哉经(Sanctus) 10. 上帝的羔羊(Agnus Dei) Andrew Staples, tenor Orchestre Philharmonique de Radio France Simón Bolívar Symphony Orchestra Radio France Chorus (Celso Antunes, chorus master) Maîtrise Notre Dame de Paris (Lionel Sow, chorus master) A film directed by Isabelle Soulard

柏辽兹的《安魂曲》又叫《纪念亡灵大弥撒》(Grande Messe des morts),原是应法国内务部之约为纪念1830年7月革命的烈士们而作。后几经周折,作品于1837年,在为法国将军达莱蒙特(Damrémont)举行的国葬上得以首演。作品包括传统安魂曲的 “进堂经,”“慈悲经,”“继叙经,”“奉献经,”“圣哉经,”“上帝的羔羊”等部分,经作曲家调整,全曲分为了十个乐章。 柏辽兹的《安魂曲》从使用的演奏和演唱者数量来说,不仅是他本人最大规模的作品,也是古典音乐史上规模最大的作品之一。柏辽兹要求双倍的弦乐(108人),包括长笛、双簧管、单簧管、英国管和巴松在内的木管组,一个12只圆号、4只短号和4只大号组成的铜管组,一个16只定音鼓、两面大鼓、4个锣和10副铜钹组成的打击乐组,另外还在舞台四角额外布置4个由长号、短号、小号、大号组成的的铜管组。合唱队要求210人,再加上男高音独唱。这样全部人数至少得400人,而柏辽兹还认为,如果场地许可,合唱队还可以扩大2~3倍,乐队也要相应扩大。这样说来,柏辽兹的“安魂曲”的演出人数,跟号称“千人交响曲”的马勒第8交响曲演出人数也相差无几。这样的配置,自然是强调戏剧性的效果,而与浪漫时期以前的宗教作品大异其趣。

  Berlioz's "requiem," also known as "Grande Messe des morts," was originally written at the behest of the French interior ministry to honor the martyrs of the July 1830 revolution.After much difficulty, the work was premiered at a state funeral for French general Damremont in 1837.The composition includes the traditional requiem's "entering the hall," "the mercy," "the sutra," "offering," "holy sutra," "lamb of god," and other parts, which have been adjusted by the composer and divided into ten movements.Berlioz's requiem is not only his largest work in terms of the number of performers and singers used, but also one of the largest works in the history of classical music.Berlioz asked double string (108), including the flute, oboe, clarinet, and bassoons, woodwind group, a dozen horn, four cornet and four large group consisting of copper pipe, a 16 timpani, two drums, only four vice gong and 10 percussion group composed of cymbals, and four additional decorate the stage 4 of trombone, cornet, small and large brass section.The chorus asked for 210 people, plus a tenor solo.That would have required at least 400 people, and Berlioz thought the chorus could expand two or three times, and the band would have to expand accordingly, if the venue permitted.In this way, the number of performers of Berlioz's "requiem" was about the same as that of mahler's eighth symphony, the "symphony of a thousand".This arrangement, of course, emphasizes the dramatic effect, which is quite different from the religious works before the romantic period.      
  西蒙·拉特尔(Simon Rattle),1955年1月19日出生于英国利物浦,英国指挥家。      
  1970年,与利物浦皇家爱乐乐团合作,举行了首场交响音乐会。1971年,进入伦敦皇家音乐学院学习指挥  。1974年,在英国伯恩茅茨举行的约翰·普莱尔国际指挥比赛中获得冠军,奠定职业指挥家的基础。1979年迎来事业转折,受聘担任伯明翰市立交响乐团的常任指挥  。1981年,被洛杉矶爱乐乐团聘为首席客座指挥。1987年,与伯明翰市立交响乐团合作录制马勒《第二交响曲》,并于同年首次执棒柏林爱乐乐团。1993年,被英国政府、《留声机》杂志授予年度艺术家称号。1994年,被英国女王授予爵士头衔   。1997年,被BBC音乐杂志授予“最佳音乐家成就奖”。1999年,与维也纳爱乐乐团合作的《贝多芬钢琴协奏曲全集》获法国唱片大奖。2000年,联合国教科文组织将他选为“和平艺术家”   。      
  In 1970, the first symphony concert was held in collaboration with the royal Liverpool philharmonic orchestra.In 1971, he entered the royal college of music in London to study conducting.In 1974, he won the John pryor international command competition in burnmouth, England, laying the foundation for a professional conductor.In 1979, she was hired as the permanent conductor of the Birmingham city symphony orchestra.In 1981, he was hired by the Los Angeles philharmonic orchestra as principal guest conductor.In 1987, he recorded mahler's second symphony with the Birmingham city symphony orchestra and made his debut with the Berlin philharmonic in the same year.In 1993, he was awarded artist of the year by the British government and gramophone magazine.In 1994, he was knighted by the queen.In 1997, he was awarded the best musician achievement award by BBC music magazine.In 1999, the complete piano concertos of Beethoven with the Vienna philharmonic won the French recording award.In 2000, UNESCO named him "artist for peace".      




哈罗尔德在意大利 Eliahu Inbal 指挥 法兰克福广播交响乐团



艾里亚胡·因巴尔(Eliahu Inbal)是一位以色列指挥家。因巴尔在以色列音乐学院学习小提琴,并与保罗·本哈伊姆一起上作曲课。伦纳德·伯恩斯坦一听到他在那里的演讲,就为因巴尔申请了一份奖学金,让他到巴黎音乐学院学习指挥,他还在荷兰希尔弗瑟姆与塞吉·塞利比达什和弗朗科·费拉拉一起学习。在诺瓦拉,他获得了1963年圭多·坎特利指挥比赛的一等奖。

  Eliahu Inbal
Eliahu Inbal is an Israeli conductor. Inbal studied violin at the Israeli Academy of Music and took composition lessons with Paul Ben-Haim. Upon hearing him there, Leonard Bernstein endorsed a scholarship for Inbal to study conducting at the Conservatoire de Paris, and he also took courses with Sergiu Celibidache and Franco Ferrara in Hilversum, Netherlands. At Novara, he won first prize at the 1963 Guido Cantelli conducting competition.


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