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                                    莫扎特之旅 编译 文/图 2020-2-26  19:36

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  威廉·理查德·瓦格纳(Wilhelm Richard Wagner,1813-1883)      
         
 
 
     
 

【中文字幕】瓦格纳 特里斯坦与伊索尔德 祖宾·梅塔指挥1998版

     
         
  音乐历史上的今天

 1852年2月26日,瓦格纳碰到了他在苏黎世的邻居们:“一个年轻富有的商人名叫魏森冬克( Wesendonck)……他的妻子很漂亮,而且似乎对我有点儿意乱情迷……说真的,我再也不能忍受男人的陪伴,甚至女人;但女人还是时不时能给我带来些轻微幻想的。”玛蒂尔德·魏森冬克( Mathilde Weresen_ donck)成了瓦格纳的情妇,为他创作《特里斯坦与伊索尔德》带来了灵感。

理查德·瓦格纳也许是赫然耸立在19世纪下半叶艺术生活中独一无二的、最重要的奇才。
1813年5月22日,瓦格纳出生在德国莱比锡一个小官员家庭。他生下才5个月,父亲便患病死去,继父是一个演员兼剧作家,从小培养瓦格纳对戏剧的兴趣,使他后来创作歌剧时能够得心应手地一个人兼写剧词和音乐。1883年2月13日瓦格纳在威尼斯去世,遗骨移葬在他晚年居住的拜罗伊特。
瓦格纳的艺术天赋从童年开始便已显露。他8岁时已经学会在钢琴上弹奏韦伯的歌剧《自由射手》的片段;14岁尝试写作悲剧;15岁,他在莱比锡第一次听到贝多芬的交响音乐作品,感受到极为深刻的印象。贝多芬去世后,他几乎把他的序曲全都抄了下来。18岁的他“上床时带着奏鸣曲,起床后又去搞四重奏曲,歌曲的部分他唱出来,四部曲他则用口哨吹出来,因为他弹钢琴老没进步”。
1842年,由于德累斯顿准备上演歌剧《黎恩济》,他重又回到自己的祖国。歌剧上演的成功,使他一举成名,被任命为德累斯顿歌剧院指挥,即宫廷乐长,就此进入了他一生中重要的创作时期。他的两部歌剧——《 汤·豪塞》和《罗恩格林》就是在这样的情况下写成的。当1849年德累斯顿起义时,他勇敢地参与五月暴动,在阵地上积极宣传鼓动。革命失败后,他潜逃到瑞士,在苏黎世等地过流亡生活达12年之久。终于在1861年获得特赦和回国的许可,为了表示忠顺,他竭力鼓吹沙文主义,为俾斯麦德国辩护。
瓦格纳独立完成的第一篇具有技巧、力量与创造力的作品,是他就贝多芬的整篇《第九交响曲》改写的钢琴曲。
1831年,瓦格纳进莱比锡大学学习作曲理论,并写出包括《C大调交响曲》、第一部歌剧《仙女》在内的一系列作品。1833年起,他先后在维尔茨堡、马格德堡、柯尼斯堡和里加等地剧院担任合唱与乐队指挥。
1839年,瓦格纳来到当时欧洲艺术文化的另一个中心——巴黎,原先他希望在这里能够上演自己的歌剧,能够获得一定的声誉,殊不知他在巴黎3年过的却是穷困潦倒的生活,全靠为报刊撰稿和改编流行歌剧而糊口。瓦格纳在巴黎为谋生而劳累工作的同时,还紧张地进行创作,写出了他早期的代表性作品,如歌剧《黎恩济》和《漂泊的荷兰人》等。
瓦格纳思想上的这种变化,在他那总称为《尼伯龙根的指环》的四部歌剧中表现得最为显著。他创作的时间历经20多年。瓦格纳最后一部歌剧《帕西法尔》在1882年完成。他的歌剧的力量,是他人所无法比拟的。
他对当时的歌剧进行了一些改革,但是他的改革却有缺陷。瓦格纳的优秀作品反映了上一世纪德国知识分子的思想和愿望,以及他们的悲观和无能为力的心境;他也歌颂了人的勇敢精神,并创造出壮丽的大自然图景,这就是瓦格纳作品 的艺术价值所在。瓦格纳还是一位音乐评论家,他的许多著作有中肯独到的见解。此外,他还是19世纪杰出的指挥家之一。

今日视频:祖宾梅塔指挥瓦格纳的歌剧《特里斯坦与伊索尔德》。

 
 
 

 
 
 
 
         
  Today in music history
On February 26, 1852, Wagner met his neighbours in Zurich: "a rich young merchant named Wesendonck...His wife was beautiful and seemed to have a crush on me...To tell the truth, I can no longer stand the company of men, or even women;But women still give me little illusions from time to time."Mathilde Weresen_ donck became Wagner's mistress and inspired him to write Tristan and isolde.
Richard Wagner was perhaps the single most important prodigy to loom large in the artistic life of the second half of the 19th century.
Wagner was born on May 22, 1813, in leipzig, Germany, to a small family of officials.He was only five months old when his father fell ill and died. His stepfather was an actor and playwright. He cultivated Wagner's interest in drama from an early age, which enabled him to write operas and music by himself.Wagner died in Venice on February 13, 1883, and his remains were buried in bayreuth, where he lived for the rest of his life.
Wagner's artistic genius was evident from childhood.By the age of eight, he had learned to play on the piano snippets from weber's opera "free shooter";Trying to write tragedy at 14;At the age of 15, he heard Beethoven's symphonic music for the first time in leipzig and was deeply impressed.After Beethoven died, he copied down almost all of his overtures.At 18, he "went to bed with a sonata, got up with a quartet, sang parts of the song, whistled the tetralogy, because he had not progressed on the piano."
In 1842, dresden returned to his native country as he prepared to perform the opera leinche.The success of the opera made him famous, and he was appointed director of the dresden opera house, or court musician, entering an important creative period in his life.Two of his operas, "Tom houser" and "lohengring," were written under such circumstances.When the dresden uprising took place in 1849, he bravely took part in the may uprising, actively agitating on the ground.After the revolution failed, he fled to Switzerland and spent 12 years in exile in places like Zurich.Finally granted an amnesty and permission to return home in 1861, he vigorously advocated chauvinism and defended bismarck's Germany in order to show his loyalty.
Wagner's first solo work of skill, power, and creativity was his reworking of Beethoven's entire ninth symphony for the piano.
In 1831, Wagner went to the university of leipzig to study composition theory and wrote a series of works including the symphony in C major and his first opera, the fairy.From 1833, he served as a choral and orchestra conductor in theaters in wurzburg, magdeburg, konigsberg and Riga.
In 1839, Wagner came to another center of European art and culture -- Paris. At first, he hoped to stage his own opera here and gain a certain reputation. However, he lived a poor life in Paris for three years.While working hard to earn a living in Paris, Wagner also worked hard to create, writing his early representative works, such as the opera "le enzi" and "the wandering Dutchman".
This change in Wagner's thinking was most pronounced in his four operas, collectively called the ring of the nibelungen.He wrote for more than 20 years.Wagner's last opera, Parsifal, was completed in 1882.The power of his operas is beyond comparison.
He made some reforms to the opera of the time, but his reforms were defective.Wagner's excellent works reflect the thoughts and aspirations of German intellectuals in the last century, as well as their pessimistic and powerless state of mind.He also extolled the courage of man and created the magnificent landscape of nature, which is the artistic value of Wagner's works.Wagner was also a music critic, and many of his books were insightful.In addition, he was one of the great conductors of the 19th century.
Today's video: zubin mehta conducts Wagner's opera Tristan and isolde.
     
         
  《特利斯坦与伊索尔德》剧作简介      
 
《特利斯坦与伊索尔德》(Tristan and Isolde)共三幕,第一幕的情节发生在浩瀚大海中独行的孤船上,特里斯坦奉康沃尔国王、自己的叔叔马克之命,接来了爱尔兰公主伊索尔德,公主将成为康沃尔王国的皇后,而特利斯坦与伊索尔德很早就已相识并相恋。此刻,一个青年水手正唱着一支壮丽的骊歌,船离康沃尔越来越近了,汹涌的大海是一对恋人激愤心情的象征,伊索尔德祈愿天神将船毁灭,于是,他们决定以毒药来结束这一切。然而,侍女布兰甘妮却以迷药代替了毒药,暗恋顿然化作了不可遏制的热恋,这对恋人的眼中闪烁着奇异的光辉,任何约束都不复存在了……
第二幕,暮色笼罩下的宫中花园,马克国王同随行武士梅洛特打猎未归。昼尽夜至,疯狂的爱恋在夜的黑暗中激涨,伊索尔德不顾布兰甘妮的劝阻,来到花园同恋人私会。她按照约定熄灭了手中的火把,特里斯坦来了,一对被爱所点燃的情侣紧紧拥抱在一起,在黑暗中,一切都消失了,唯有极乐的幸福在闪烁。特利斯坦与伊索尔德的充满了狂喜和柔媚的、荡漾着情欲的、具有致命诱惑力的二重唱,使全剧达到了异常激动人心的高潮,二重唱在“情死”的动机中达到高潮,沉浸爱河的这对恋人忘记了时间,黑夜已渐逝,白昼已重现。他们的恋情被归来的马克国王发现,梅洛特的剑刺入了毫不躲避的特里斯坦的身体。
第三幕,高崖上俯视苍茫大海的特里斯坦堡,一棵菩提树下,濒死的特里斯坦正期待伊索尔德的到来。牧童吹奏着一支凄婉的悲歌,在昏迷与清醒之间,特里斯坦产生了幻觉,他大喊着:“船来了!船来了!”。……不知过了多久,他终于听到了他所渴念的熟悉的声音,他爬了起来,摇摇欲坠地奔向正张开双手朝他而来的伊索尔德,在伊索尔德的温柔怀抱中,特里斯坦注视着她,满怀内心的喜悦而死去。这时,马克国王得知迷药之情,宣布饶恕他们。此刻,伊索尔德凝视着死去的爱人,她心驰神摇,满怀情死的欢乐,“伊索尔德的情死之歌”轻轻地升起,慢慢地,注入了狂悦的激情。一曲终了,伊索尔德倒在特里斯坦的怀里,沉入到永恒的黑暗之中,也沉入到永恒的爱之夜中。
     
  Introduction of plays,
"Trey Stan and Isolde" Tristan and Isolde), a total of three ACTS, the plot of the first act alone in the vast ocean of solitary boat, Tristan in Cornwall, the king, his uncle mark, connect to the Irish princess Isolde, the princess will be the queen of the kingdom of Cornwall, and trey Stan and Isolde have long had met and fell in love.At that moment, a young sailor was singing a magnificent song. The ship was getting closer and closer to Cornwall. The turbulent sea was a symbol of the indignation of the lovers.However, the handmaid brangani replaced the poison with ecstacy, love suddenly turned into an unquenchable hot love, the eyes of this pair of lovers are shining with strange brilliance, any constraint no longer exists...
In the second act, in the palace garden in the dusk, king mark does not return from hunting with his knight, merlot.Day and night to, crazy love in the dark of the night in the excitement, isold regardless of blanghani's dissuasions, came to the garden with lovers private meeting.She extinguished the torch in the hand according to the agreement, Tristan came, a pair of lovers were lit by love tightly embrace together, in the dark, everything disappeared, only the bliss in the twinkling.Tristan and isolde's ecstatic, seductive, erotic, and fatal duet brings the play to a thrilling climax. The duet culminates in the motive of "love death," in which the two lovers lose all sense of time, the night fades away and the day returns.Their love was returned to king mark found that merlot's sword into the body of no escape Tristan.
The third act, high cliff overlooking the sea of Tristan castle, under a linden tree, the dying Tristan is looking forward to the arrival of isolde.The shepherd boy played a sad elegy. Between the coma and the soberness, Tristan had hallucinations. He shouted: "the ship is coming!Here comes the ship!"....After some time, he finally heard the familiar voice he longed for. He got up and ran precariously toward isolde, who was coming toward him with outstretched hands. In isolde's gentle arms, Tristan watched her and died with joy in his heart.At this point, king mark learned of ecstacy's feelings and announced to forgive them.At that moment, isolde stared at her dead lover, her heart was full of ecstasy and joy of love death, "isolde's love death song" rose gently, slowly, into the passion of ecstasy.At the end of the song, isolde fell into Tristan's arms and sank into eternal darkness and eternal night of love.

 
     
   
  电影《瓦格纳》中的镜头——瓦格纳和玛蒂尔德·魏森冬克在一起。      
  1913年,在作曲家诞辰100周年之际,大师电影有限公司制作了这本完全官方的瓦格纳传记,当时他的守护神寡妇科西马还活着(她直到

1930年才去世)。

     
  Notre avis : Ce n’est pas sans quelque appréhension qu’on aborde cette biographie de Wagner tout à fait officielle, produite en 1913 par la Messter Film GMBH à l’occasion du centième anniversaire de la naissance du compositeur, alors que sa veuve Cosima, gardienne du temple, était encore vivante (elle n’est décédée qu’en 1930).       
   
  玛蒂尔德·魏森冬克      
  Mathilde Wesendonck was a German poet and authorThe words of 

five of her verses were the basis of herfriend Richard Wagner's 

Wesendonck Lieder

He mayhave been her paramour.

     
         
       
  电影《瓦格纳》的一个镜头      
  Manny Ziener (Minna Planer, au fond), Giuseppe Becce (Richard Wagner) et Miriam Horwitz (Mathilde Wesendonck) dans Wagner (1913)      
         
         
 

电影中的瓦格纳音乐

     
 
 
 
     
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