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                      莫扎特之旅-文化交流-音乐历史上的今天                    
                     
 
 
                   
                     

                   
                     
 
 

 
 

                                    莫扎特之旅 编译 文/图 2020-02-24  16:36

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
  路德维希·凡·贝多芬 (Ludwig van Beethoven 1770—1827      
         
 

【路德维希·凡·贝多芬】战争交响曲《威灵顿的胜利》op.91

     
  Wellingtons sieg, ober Die Schlacht bei Vittoria是1813年为庆祝英国摄政王腓特烈率领军队击溃拿破仑所做,

乐曲使用了多支小号、机械齿轮、低音鼓、大钹等多件乐器用来模拟枪炮声。

     
 
     
  音乐历史上的今天

1823年2月24日,贝多芬写信给英王乔治四世:“早在1813年,鄙人在旅居维也纳的英国公民的数次要求下,斗胆将作品《威灵顿的胜利》(Wellington's Victory)寄给陛下您.....时隔多年,鄙人仍心怀希望,陛下您能否慈悲地令我知晓作品是否安全抵达.....”
 

路德维希·凡·贝多芬1770年12月1 6日出生在德国国波恩的一个音乐世家。他的祖父路德维希(1712~1773)曾任皇家宫廷乐长,父亲约翰(1740~1792)是宫廷男高音歌手,母亲玛丽亚·玛格达勒娜(1746~1787)是宫廷厨师的女儿。贝多芬童年非常不幸,他的父亲是一个极为残暴的酒鬼,他剥夺了小贝多芬学习、休息与娱乐的时间,让年仅4岁的贝多芬一天到晚没完没了地练习钢琴和小提琴。他的父亲期望儿子能成为一名像莫扎特那样的神童轰动世界,成为摇钱树。贝多芬的母亲天性过于柔弱,面对凶狠的丈折磨儿子,毫无办法。
不幸的童年生活塑造了贝多芬深沉、内向、倔强的性格,培养了他的反抗精神。他总是默默不语,长久地坐在钢琴前不知疲倦地弹着、练着……饱含泪水,却永远不肯让它流落下来。
除了耳聋以外,长期以来,他一直有慢性风湿和粘膜炎;1816年冬天,他患了支气管炎,后又转成肺病;1821年得了黄疸症;1825年又染上了严重的肠炎与肝炎……在病魔的身旁,另一位更加凶狠而又熟悉的敌人再次袭来——贫困!
尽管1814年的维也纳会议曾给他带来过可观的收入,但因他对生活方面很不在行、常为穷朋友慷慨解囊、厨娘对他的愚弄欺骟,尤其是为了他的侄子卡尔等多种原因,导致他在经济上十分拮据。
成功并没有给贝多芬带来任何物质上的好处,他贫病交加,窘迫如故。但是他老了,各种疾病纷至沓来。在短短的两个月内,他一连接受了4次大手术,不但身体彻底垮了下来,而且在经济上已接近不名一文的地步。
1827年3月26日下午,惊雷滚滚,道道闪电划破了茫茫长空!昏睡中的贝多芬永远地闭上了双眼。

由于家庭的不幸,贝多芬过早地担负起生活的重担,他11岁辍学,并加入剧院的乐队,靠一点菲薄的工资来养家糊口。
1787年,贝多芬怀着求知的欲望和对未来的美好憧憬,前往维也纳拜他久已仰慕的偶像莫扎特为师。可惜,在维也纳的学习很快就中断了——母亲身患重病,贝多芬赶回波恩。不久母亲去逝,贝多芬失去了他心中惟一的亲人。过度的哀痛导致他接二连三地得了几场大病,其中的一次是出天花,因而永远毁了他的容貌。
1789年,法国爆发了资产阶级民主革命,这场风暴很快就席卷了整个欧洲。当时,19岁的贝多芬是波恩大学哲学系的旁听生,大革命胜利的消息在校园里和社会上到处都引起欢呼的声浪,“自由、平等、博爱”的崇高理想吸引着人们狂热的追求。这些朝气蓬勃的新鲜事物是那样富于生命力,给年轻的贝多芬打下了深刻的烙印,直至他的一生。
1792年,在海顿的支持与鼓励下,22岁的贝多芬告别了波恩,来到音乐之都维也纳。凭着高超的钢琴演奏技巧和音乐天赋,又是赫赫有名的海顿的学生,再加上他是弗朗兹皇帝叔叔的乐师,他立即就赢得了维也纳上流社会的热情接待。他开始与贵族们进行广泛交往,他衣着华丽,喜欢跳舞,并且对千金小姐们萌生了强烈的爱情,幻想着与她们结合。
然而,现实是无情的。贝多芬渐渐发现贵族社会并没有平等地对待他,热恋的幻想也屡遭碰壁,依靠自己的艺术创作来谋生的愿望在出版商的残酷剥削下濒于破灭……他开始对现实不满,可无情的命运却偏要捉弄他,故意选择了音乐家最脆弱的要害部位来进行打击,他的听觉逐渐丧失。
贝多芬长期隐瞒自己的残疾,不敢也不愿承认这残酷的事实。1802年,更大的打击向他袭来——他所钟爱的贵族小姐朱丽叶弃他而去!极度忧郁中的贝多芬在维也纳郊外写下了向人世诀别的“海利根施塔特”遗言,打算自杀。奇怪的是这正是他创作最明朗的《D大调第二交响曲》之时,正是艺术,伟大的音乐艺术挽救了他!是使命感,神圣的使命感将他从死亡的边缘拽了回来!他战胜了自身的痛苦。随后的几年中,他对自己没有希望成为大演奏家有了自知之明,因而主要投身于创作。
1814年春,反法联军攻占巴黎,复辟称帝的拿破仑被迫退位。一向蔑视权贵的贝多芬忽然意外地“走红”起来,成为官方推崇的音乐家。他的许多老作品被荣幸地安排上演,新作品的预订也应接不暇,辉煌的招待会纷纷有请,大笔金钱滚滚而来……然而,此刻的贝多芬已不再是22年前初到维也纳时的小伙子了。
贝多芬的创作活动持续了35年之久,他为了达到完美的境界,进行了不懈的努力。

今日视频:1、贝多芬献给英王乔治四世的“
战争交响曲”《威灵顿的胜利》。2、 瓦伦蒂娜·莉莎演奏贝多芬的《 月光奏鸣曲》。

 
 
 
 
 
       
  路德维希·凡·贝多芬 (Ludwig van Beethoven )      
 
     
  Today in music history
On 24 February 1823, Beethoven wrote to king George iv: "as early as 1813, at the request of several British citizens living in Vienna, I had the courage to send to your majesty Wellington's Victory...After so many years, I still hope that your majesty will kindly let me know whether the work has arrived safely..."
Ludwig van Beethoven was born in Bonn, Germany, on December 16, 1770, into a musical family.His grandfather Ludwig (1712-1773) was a royal court musician, his father John (1740-1792) was a court tenor, and his mother maria magdalena (1746-1787) was the daughter of a court cook.Beethoven had a very unhappy childhood. His father was a very violent drunkard. He deprived Beethoven of time for study, rest and recreation.His father expected his son to become a child prodigy like Mozart, a world sensation and a cash cow.Beethoven's mother nature is too weak, in the face of fierce zhang torture son, no way.
The unhappy childhood life shaped Beethoven's deep, introverted and stubborn character and cultivated his rebellious spirit.He was always silent, sitting in front of the piano for a long time, tirelessly playing, practicing...Full of tears, but never let it flow down.
In addition to his deafness, he had had chronic rheumatism and mucositis for a long time;In the winter of 1816, he contracted bronchitis and then lung disease;Jaundice in 1821;In 1825 he contracted severe enteritis and hepatitis...At the side of the sick, another, fiercer and more familiar enemy strikes again-poverty!
Although the congress of Vienna in 1814 had brought him considerable income, his poor knowledge of life, his generosity to poor friends, his attempts by the cook to make a fool of him, and, above all, his nephew Karl, had led to his financial difficulties.
Success did not bring Beethoven any material benefits, he was poor and ill, embarrassed.But he was old, and diseases came on him.He had undergone four major operations in a short space of two months, and not only was he completely broken down, but he was nearly penniless financially.
On the afternoon of March 26, 1827, thunderous thunder rolled, and lightning tore the vast expanse of the sky!Beethoven closed his eyes forever in his sleep.
Due to the misfortune of his family, Beethoven took on the burden of life too early. He dropped out of school at the age of 11 and joined the theater band.
In 1787, Beethoven went to Vienna with a desire for knowledge and a vision of the future.Unfortunately, his studies in Vienna were soon interrupted when his mother became seriously ill and Beethoven returned to Bonn.Soon after his mother died, Beethoven lost the only family in his heart.Excessive grief led to a series of serious illnesses, one of which was smallpox, which permanently ruined his appearance.
In 1789, the bourgeois democratic revolution broke out in France, and the storm soon swept through Europe.At the time, Beethoven was a 19-year-old student in the philosophy department of the university of Bonn. The news of the victory of the great revolution was greeted with cheers on the campus and in the society.These vibrant new things are so full of vitality, to the young Beethoven laid a deep imprint, until his life.
In 1792, with Haydn's support and encouragement, Beethoven said goodbye to Bonn at the age of 22 and came to Vienna, the capital of music.With great piano skills and musical talent, as well as being a famous student of Haydn's, and as a musician to the uncle of the emperor Franz, he immediately won the warm reception of Vienna's high society.He began to have extensive contacts with the nobles. He was well dressed and fond of dancing.
The reality, however, is grim.Beethoven gradually found that the aristocratic society did not treat him equally, the fantasy of hot love was also repeatedly met with a wall, the desire to make a living on their own artistic creation in the publisher's cruel exploitation on the verge of disillusionment...He began to be dissatisfied with the reality, but the merciless fate is partial to play a trick on him, deliberately chose the musician the most vulnerable vital parts to strike, his hearing gradually lost.
Beethoven hid his disability for a long time, afraid and unwilling to admit the brutal truth.In 1802, an even greater blow came to him -- his beloved noble Juliet had deserted him!In great depression, Beethoven wrote the last words of "heiligenstadt" on the outskirts of Vienna, intending to commit suicide.The strange thing is that this was when he was writing his most brilliant symphony no. 2 in D major, and it was the art, the great art of music, that saved him!It was mission, divine mission that pulled him back from the brink of death!He overcame his own pain.In the years that followed, he became aware that he had no hope of becoming a great performer and devoted himself mainly to creation.
In the spring of 1814, an anti-french coalition captured Paris, forcing the restoration of napoleon to abdicate.Beethoven, who had been disdainful of the powerful, suddenly became an official musician.Many of his old works have been honoured with performances, new ones have been booked, splendid receptions have been held, money has poured in...However, Beethoven is no longer the young man he was 22 years ago when he first arrived in Vienna.
Beethoven's creative activities continued for 35 years, he in order to achieve the perfect state, the unremitting efforts.
Today's video: 1. "victory of Wellington", Beethoven's "war symphony" dedicated to king George iv.2. Valentina lisa plays Beethoven's moonlight sonata.
 

 
 
 
       
  在贝多芬一生的罗曼史中,最重要的就是不朽的恋人之谜,在专家研究结果中,贝多芬的不朽恋人排在第一位的就是朱莉娅·圭察蒂女伯爵,她名气之所以大的主要原因在于贝多芬将《月光奏鸣曲》题献给了圭察蒂。贝多芬认识她的时候圭察蒂只有17岁,年轻而美丽,贝多芬很快就和她深陷爱情之中。有据可查的是:贝多芬晚年对传记作者辛德勒说过圭察蒂是“唯一适合我的好姑娘”。      
   
  贝多芬“海利根施塔特”遗书手迹      
  1802年,更大的打击向贝多芬袭来——他所钟爱的贵族小姐朱丽叶弃他而去!极度忧郁中的贝多芬在维也纳郊外写下了向人世诀别的“海利根施塔特”遗言,打算自杀。      
 
     
         
 

贝多芬月光奏鸣曲一二乐章 Valentina Lisitsa

     
       
  瓦伦蒂娜·莉莎(Valentina Lisitsa)      
  瓦伦蒂娜·莉莎是乌克兰出生的古典钢琴家。她出生在乌克兰基辅一个非音乐家的家庭,三岁时开始弹钢琴,一年后就进行了她的第一次独奏。尽管她很早就喜欢音乐,但那时她的梦想是成为一名职业棋手。
瓦伦蒂娜·莉莎是互联网上最受关注的古典音乐家之一,她在YouTube上拥有超过2亿的浏览量和50万的订阅用户,她利用数字创新来支持古典音乐和表演。

 
     
  Valentina Lisitsa is a Ukrainian-born classical pianist. Born into a family of non-musicians in Kiev, Ukraine, she started playing piano at the age of three, performing her first solo recital only a year later. Despite her early disposition to music, her dream at that point was to become a professional chess player.
With more than 200 million YouTube views and some 500,000 subscribers to her channel, Valentina Lisitsa is one of the most watched classical musicians on the internet, using digital innovation to champion classical music and performance.

 
     
 
     
 
 
 
     
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