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                      莫扎特之旅-文化交流-音乐历史上的今天                    
                     
 
 
                   
                     

                   
                     
 
 

 
 

                                    莫扎特之旅 编译 文/图 2020-02-22  16:36

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
  弗里德里克·肖邦(Fryderyk  Chopin 1810-1849)      
         
 

《钢琴师》又名《战地琴人》肖邦叙事曲 G小调第一叙事曲op23

     
  波兰犹太人钢琴家席皮尔曼与德国军官威尔姆霍森菲尔德的爱情故事

电影《钢琴家》剧情简介:作为一名天才的作曲家兼钢琴家,瓦拉迪斯劳·席皮尔曼在纳粹占领前还坚持在电台做现场演奏。然而在那段白色恐怖的日子里,他整日处在死亡的威胁下,不得不四处躲藏以免落入纳粹的魔爪。他在华沙的犹太区里饱受着饥饿的折磨和各种羞辱。在这里,即便所有热爱的东西都不得不放弃的时候,他仍旧顽强的活着。他躲过了地毯式的搜查,藏身于城市的废墟中。幸运的是他的美妙的琴声令德国军官萌发了恻隐之心,在军官的冒死保护下,钢琴家终于捱到了战争结束,迎来了自由的曙光。

     
 
     
  音乐历史上的今天

1810年2月22日,波兰著名作曲家弗列德里克·肖邦1810年2月22日出生在靠近首都华沙的热拉佐瓦沃拉一个田庄里。

弗里德里克·弗朗索瓦·肖邦(F.F.Chopin,1810年2月22日—1849年10月17日)的父亲是法国移民,曾积极参与波兰反对异国入侵的起义,他的爱国主义思想对肖邦产生了重要影响。肖邦从小体弱多病,似乎天生具有一种多愁善感的气质。他没有像普通孩子那样进入学校,而是在家中学习,直到13岁为止。肖邦从小便显示出非凡的音乐天赋,他6岁起学习钢琴,8岁即正式登台演出。同一时期,他已开始尝试作曲,写了一首钢琴曲《g小调波兰舞曲》。16岁至19岁,肖邦就读于华沙音乐学院,那时候学校的教师们已经意识到一个天才诞生了。
肖邦的母亲出身于波兰贵族家庭,会弹钢琴,又爱唱波兰民歌,因此肖邦自幼便从母亲那里获得了波兰民间音乐的深刻印象。在中学和音乐学院期间,他还时常利用假期到波兰的许多地区旅行,仔细观察农村生活的备方面活动,聚精会神倾听民间的曲调。在他家里肖邦从许多文化界来客的生动谈话中,还接触到关于波兰的历史和文学艺术等方面的许多问题。就是在这样的环境之下音乐年复一年地深深铭刻在他的意识之中。
1830年,由于国内政治局势动荡,肖邦听从他的老师和亲友的规劝,动身到国外旅行。
肖邦到维也纳后不久,便听到华沙为抗击帝俄统治的十一月起义的消息。因此,他决定去巴黎或伦敦。当他在1831年9月途经斯图加特时,又听到华沙重又陷入俄国侵略军手里的噩耗,波兰革命失败断绝了他回国的路线。同月,肖邦到达巴黎后就在那里定居下来。肖邦来到巴黎时还是一个刚过20岁的青年,但他的音乐演奏和教课活动很快给他打开了局面,获得了当时云集巴黎、包括李斯特和门德尔松在内的音乐家的好评。1834年同门德尔松等一起沿莱茵河区旅行演奏,后来他到莱比锡又结识了舒曼。文学艺术界进步人士的精神影响,使肖邦打开了眼界,对他的思想的成熟起着有益
的作用。
1848年11月,肖邦带着重病回到巴黎,1849年10月17日终于在巴黎辞世。巴黎所有的优秀艺术家都参加了他的葬礼。用莫扎特的《安魂曲》和肖邦自己的《葬礼进行曲》送他下葬。根据肖邦生前的意愿,他的一颗忠于祖国的心脏被送回华沙,葬在一所教堂里。

    不屈的性格

“钢琴诗人”肖邦年幼时就显露其不凡的才华,当他十二岁时,华沙一家报纸曾醒目地以大字刊着:“上帝把莫扎特赐给奥地利人,把肖邦赐给了波兰人。”
十九世纪三十年代初,肖邦来到了欧洲文化中心城市巴黎,他的第一场音乐会就征服了这座城市。结果是请柬纷至沓来,他成了沙龙的常客。在这些社会的交往中,肖邦总是流露他那种以艺术为尊的艺术家气质。据说在一次宴会后,主人指指钢琴又指捐肖邦,意欲让他演奏。一曲作为“餐后的节目”来助助兴。肖邦感到他那艺术家之心受了莫大的污辱,大为不快,冷冷地对主人说:“对不起,我吃得很少,”并取出钱往桌上一扔:“给,这是我的饭费。”说完忿然离去。

    情感扫描
1838年,肖邦同法国女作家乔治一桑同居,在乔治一桑的文艺沙龙里,他还接触到更多的文艺界著名人士但是最使他神往的却是单独同波兰朋友在一起,特别是为波兰著名诗人密茨凯维支弹奏,因为在这时候,他好像置身于遥远的祖国,音乐唤起了他的回忆,复活了昔日生活的情景。
早在1839年间,肖邦潜伏的肺病已开始恶化。到1847年,同乔治·桑的关系破裂给了他致命的打击。作家和音乐史家花了很大力气探讨两人的关系,有人声称他们最初很有希望成为恋人,但实际上两人并无肉体关系。这是音乐史上最奇妙的罗曼史之一 尽管结局不尽人意。在此之后便是他一生中最阴暗的日子,生活没有保障。1848年春肖邦虽然到过英国,受到欢迎,但是他在这时的精神状态,正如他在信上所说,已经“没有任何感觉,只是拖着生活,耐心等待自己的终场”。
1838年,肖邦同法国女作家乔治一桑同居,在乔治一桑的文艺沙龙里,他还接触到更多的文艺界著名人士但是最使他神往的却是单独同波兰朋友在一起,特别是为波兰著名诗人密茨凯维支弹奏,因为在这时候,他好像置身于遥远的祖国,音乐唤起了他的回忆,复活了昔日生活的情景。
肖邦的创作几乎全是钢琴曲。他选择同他的天分最相接近的这一领域,通过钢琴以表现思想感情达到如此的深度,他为钢琴这一乐器所创造的各种体裁又是如此之完美和丰富。肖邦的创作大体上可以用他离开祖国的那一年作为两大时期的分界。他在1830年之前的创作,已经可以看到同波兰民间音乐的直接联系,已经形成了他自己的创作风格。在1830年之后,肖邦的创作已完全成熟,他的爱国热忱,对祖国的思念,由于希望破灭而引起的沉痛情绪,在备类作品中都有不同程度的体现,但他的爱国思想在波兰舞曲和玛祖卡舞曲中表现得尤其突出。从1838年到1845年,是肖邦作品最丰富的几年,他的最重要的作品,如几首叙事曲和奏鸣曲,最优秀的波兰舞曲和玛祖卡舞曲等,都是在这段时间写出的。肖邦是他那个时代最先进的思想的代表和喉舌,他的音乐同波兰民族解放运动紧密联系,他的音乐在波兰发挥着富于革命性的作用。

今日视频:1、
电影《战地钢琴家》中波兰犹太人钢琴家席皮尔曼 为德国军官威尔姆·霍森菲尔德演奏肖邦第一叙事曲。2、钢琴家基辛演奏肖邦《c小调革命练习曲》3、苏联电影《激情》中钢琴家鲁道夫·克尔 为列宁和高尔基演奏肖邦《革命练习曲》。

 
 
 
 
 
       
  弗里德里克·肖邦(Fryderyk  Chopin  )      
 
     
  Today in music history
Frederic Chopin, a famous polish composer, was born on February 22, 1810, at a grange in gerazovawara, near the capital Warsaw.
Frederic francois Chopin (f.f.chopin (February 22, 1810 -- October 17, 1849) was the son of a French immigrant who was actively involved in the polish uprising against foreign invasion.Chopin was sickly as a child and seemed to have an innate quality of sentimentality.Instead of going to school as an ordinary child, he studied at home until he was 13.Chopin showed great musical talent from the time he was a child, learning to play the piano at the age of six and performing at the age of eight.At the same time, he had begun to experiment with composition, writing a piano piece, polonaise in g minor.Between the ages of 16 and 19, Chopin attended the Warsaw conservatory of music, where the teachers knew a genius had been born.
Chopin was deeply impressed by the polish folk music of his mother, a polish aristocrat who played the piano and loved to sing polish folk songs.During his secondary school and conservatory of music, he also used his holidays to travel to many parts of Poland, observing carefully the activities of rural life and listening intently to folk tunes.In his home Chopin came into contact with many questions about polish history, literature and art from the lively conversations of many visitors to the cultural world.It was in this environment that music was imprinted on his consciousness year after year.
In 1830, with domestic politics in turmoil, Chopin followed the advice of his teachers and friends and set off on a foreign trip.
Soon after Chopin arrived in Vienna, he heard news of the November uprising in Warsaw against Russian rule.So he decided to go to Paris or London.As he passed through Stuttgart in September 1831, he heard the news that Warsaw was once again at the hands of the Russian invaders, and the failure of the polish revolution cut off his route home.Chopin settled in Paris the same month he arrived.Chopin arrived in Paris as a young man in his early twenties, but his musical performances and teaching activities soon opened up for him, and he was well received by the musicians who flocked to Paris, including liszt and Mendelssohn.In 1834, he played along the Rhine with Mendelssohn and others. Later, he met schumann in leipzig.The spiritual influence of the progressives in literary and art circles opened Chopin's eyes and was beneficial to the maturity of his thoughts
The role of.
Chopin returned to Paris in November 1848 with a serious illness and died there on October 17, 1849.All the best artists in Paris attended his funeral.He was buried with Mozart's requiem and Chopin's own funeral march.According to Chopin's wishes, a loyal heart was sent back to Warsaw and buried in a church.
Unyielding character
"Piano poet" Chopin showed his talent at an early age. When he was 12, a Warsaw newspaper printed in bold letters: "god gave Mozart to the austrians and Chopin to the poles."
In the early 1830s, Chopin arrived in Paris, the cultural center of Europe, and conquered the city with his first concert.As a result, invitations poured in and he became a regular at the salon.In these social contacts, Chopin always revealed his artistic quality.It is said that after a banquet, the host pointed at the piano and asked Chopin to play.A song as an "after - dinner program" to help the fun.Unhappy at the insult to his artist's heart, Chopin coolly said to his host, "I beg your pardon, I have eaten very little," and threw the money on the table: "here, here is my meal."Then he left in anger.
Emotional scanning
In 1838, XiaoBangTong French female writer George a living together, in a mulberry George's literary salons, he also come into contact with the more famous people but make him most of the literary imagination is separate with polish friends, especially as Poland's famous poet closely, he play, because at this time, he as if place oneself in a distant country, music evoked memories of his, raised the old life.
As early as 1839, Chopin's latent lung disease had begun to deteriorate.By 1847, the collapse of his relationship with George sang had dealt him a fatal blow.Writers and music historians have gone to great lengths to explore the relationship between the two, with some claiming that they were initially promising lovers, but in reality there was no physical relationship.It was one of the most wonderful romances in the history of music, although it ended badly.After that came the darkest days of his life, with no security.Although Chopin was welcomed to England in the spring of 1848, his state of mind at this time, as he wrote in his letter, was "without any feeling, just dragging on life, waiting patiently for the end".
In 1838, XiaoBangTong French female writer George a living together, in a mulberry George's literary salons, he also come into contact with the more famous people but make him most of the literary imagination is separate with polish friends, especially as Poland's famous poet closely, he play, because at this time, he as if place oneself in a distant country, music evoked memories of his, raised the old life.
Chopin wrote almost exclusively on the piano.He chose the field closest to his genius, reaching such depth of thought and feeling through the piano, and so perfect and rich were the genres he created for the instrument.Chopin's work can be roughly divided between the two periods by the year he left his homeland.The direct connection with polish folk music can already be seen in his work before 1830, which has formed his own style.After 1830, Chopin's works were fully mature. His patriotic zeal, yearning for his motherland, and bitter emotion caused by his lost hope were all reflected in his works, but his patriotic thoughts were especially prominent in polonaise and mazurka.From 1838 to 1845, Chopin's most prolific years, his most important works, such as several ballads and sonatas, the best polonaises and mazurkas, were written during this period.Chopin was the representative and mouthpiece of the most advanced ideas of his time. His music was closely linked with the polish national liberation movement, and his music played a revolutionary role in Poland.
Today's video: 1. In the movie "battlefield pianist", the polish jewish pianist szpilman plays Chopin's ballade no. 1 with the German officer wilm hosenfeld.3. In the Soviet film passion, pianist Rudolf Kerr played Chopin's revolutionary etudes.
 

 
 
 
       
  乔治·桑(George Sand)      
 
乔治·桑(George Sand 1804~1876),法国著名小说家,是巴尔扎克时代最具风情、最另类的小说家。
她凭借发表的第一部长篇小说《安蒂亚娜》(1832)而一举成名。乔治·桑是一位多产作家,她一生写了244部作品,100卷以上的文艺作品、20卷的回忆录《我的一生》以及大量书简和政论文章。
雨果曾称颂她“在我们这个时代具有独一无二的地位。其他伟人都是男子,惟独她是伟大的女性”。

乔治·桑(George Sand)原名露西·奥罗尔·杜邦,1804年7月1日生于巴黎一个贵族家庭,在法国诺昂乡村长大。父亲是第一帝国拿破仑时代的一个军官。由于父亲早逝,而母亲曾有沦落风尘的经历,所以她从小由祖母抚养,祖母为了把她培养成一个淑女,费尽苦心,而乔治·桑没有令祖母失望,小小年纪便已露出卓尔不群的才华。13岁进入巴黎的修道院

1836年冬天肖邦结识了比他大6岁的法国作家乔治·桑,肖邦,这个纤弱、儒雅而又温柔的男子,对反传统的多产作家乔治·桑,第一印象并不太好,但随着时间的推移,乔治桑越来越引起肖邦的注意,肖邦发现和她在一起时,他可以尽情倾诉内心深处的情感。后来,肖邦和乔治·桑生活在了一起,他们保持了长达9年的关系,乔治桑给予肖邦的细心照料,有助于焕发肖邦的才华,他们生活在一起的后来几年,肖邦的作曲生涯达到了他个人生命的最高点,是肖邦鸣唱“天鹅之歌”的岁月。从1838年到1845年,是肖邦作品最丰富的几年,他的最重要的作品,如几首叙事曲和奏鸣曲,最优秀的波兰舞曲和玛祖卡舞曲等,都是在这段时间写出的。

1846年,肖邦和乔治·桑在诺罕庄园里一起度过了最后一个残秋,11月,由于种种原因,他们分开了。

肖邦来到巴黎心情十分忧郁,肺病加重,身体越来越坏,但为了生活,他还要带病教学生弹琴。第二年春天他的身体稍微好一些,想起和乔治·桑在一起的这些年,他很有感触,于是,写下了一首《升C小调圆舞曲》。
乍一听,你会感到它的旋律很美,实际上它隐藏着一种说不出来的悲哀。
肖邦似乎在说:悲哀吗?怎么?我可是不在乎的,不在乎的,该怎样就怎样吧!……可是,他究竟不是完全不在乎的,真相隐藏在圆舞曲激动的悲哀里,他的心潮在起伏翻滚。
     
  George Sand (1804 ~ 1876) was a famous French novelist.
She rose to fame with her first published novel, antiana (1832).George sang was a prolific writer who wrote 244 books, more than 100 volumes of literary and artistic works, 20 volumes of her memoirs, my life, and a large number of books and political essays.
Hugo once praised her "for her unique position in our time.All the other great men were men, but she was a great woman.
George Sand, whose real name was Lucy orol dupont, was born on July 1, 1804, in a noble family in Paris, and grew up in the French countryside of nuon.His father was an officer in the Napoleonic era of the first empire.Because of her father's early death and her mother's downfalls, she was raised by her grandmother, who took great pains to make her a lady.He entered a convent in Paris at the age of 13.
In the winter of 1836 Chopin met 6 years older than his French writer George sang, Chopin, the delicate and elegant and gentle man, prolific writer George sang of tradition, the first impression is not very good, but as time goes on, her more and more the attention of Chopin, Frederic Chopin found her together, and he can pour out inner emotions.Later, Chopin and George sang live together, they keep the relationship for nine years, her give Chopin's loving care, help with Chopin's talent, they live together in a few years later, of Chopin's career reached its highest level of his personal life, Chopin is singing "swan song".From 1838 to 1845, Chopin's most prolific years, his most important works, such as several ballads and sonatas, the best polonaises and mazurkas, were written during this period.
In 1846, Chopin and George sang spent their last autumn together at the nohan estate. In November, for various reasons, they separated.
Chopin came to Paris in a very gloomy mood, lung disease, the body is getting worse and worse, but in order to live, he is still sick to teach students to play the piano.The next spring he was in better health, and thinking of his years with George sang, he was so impressed that he wrote a waltz in C sharp minor.
At first listen, you will feel its melody is very beautiful, in fact, it hides a kind of unspeakable sadness.
Chopin seemed to be saying: sad?How do?I don't care. I don't care....But he did not care at all. The truth lay in the excited sadness of the waltz, and his heart rose and fell.
     
   
  肖邦在巴黎的音乐沙龙演奏中      
 
     
         
 

肖邦 - 练习曲Op.10 No.12 革命(C小调革命练习曲)

     
 

Frédéric Chopin - Étude Op. 10 No. 12 in C minor, "Revolutionary Étude"

Piano: Evgeny Kissin

     
         
 

【电影片段】Rudolf Kerer为列宁弹奏 肖邦 革命练习曲(1963)苏联电影中的列宁

     
  鲁道夫·克尔演奏肖邦练习曲op. 10 no。1963年列宁和高尔基——视频12日原简介:弗拉基米尔·列宁和马克西姆•高尔基窃听鲁道夫Kehrer演奏肖邦的革命练习曲,作品10号没有。在与高尔基的妻子叶卡捷琳娜·别什科娃坐下来听克尔弹奏这首曲子之前。在最后,高尔基说,这是美丽的,感谢Kerer发挥。这句话出自索维的一部名为《激情》的电影。在这部电影中,列宁和高尔基围坐在一起,一边听克尔演奏肖邦和贝多芬的作品,一边讨论革命政治。难以置信的,惊人的。我还上传了同一部电影中Kerer演奏的贝多芬的《激情奏鸣曲》和《月光奏鸣曲》 。      
  Rudolf Kerer plays Chopin Etude op. 10 no. 12 for Lenin and Gorky - video 1963 原简介:Vladimir Lenin and Maxim Gorky eavesdrop on Rudolf Kehrer playing Chopin's Revolutionary etude, op. 10 no. 12, before sitting down with Gorky's wife Yekaterina Peshkova to listen to Kerer play the piece. At the end Gorky says it's beautiful and thanks Kerer for playing. This comes from a Sovet film entitled Appassionata in which Lenin and Gorky sit around listening to Kerer play Chopin and Beethoven while discussing revolutionary politics. Incredible and amazing. I've also uploaded Kerer playing Beethoven's Appassionata and Moonlight Sonata from the same film.      
 
 
 
     
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