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                                    莫扎特之旅 编译 文/图 2020-02-01  16:36

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
  阿诺尔德·勋伯格(Arnold Schoenberg 1874-1951)      
         
 
 
     
 

阿诺德·勋伯格 Arnold Schoenberg: 小提琴协奏曲,作品36号

 Michael Barenboim, violin

 Vasily Petrenko, conductor

Berliner Philharmoniker

     
 
     
  音乐历史上的今天
1930年2月1日,由阿诺德·勋伯格和他的妻子葛特鲁德( Gertrud)共同创作的一部讲述婚姻不忠的喜剧《朝夕之间》(Von Heute auf Morgen)在法兰克福上演,指挥是威廉·斯坦伯格(William Steinberg)。勋伯格说:“今晚您的演绎和我写的乐谱之间所存在的不同,简直可以产生一部新的歌剧出来。”


阿诺尔德·勋伯格(Arnold Schoenberg 1874-1951)美籍奥地利作曲家,20世纪实验音乐的代表人物,十二音体系的创立者。1 8 7 4年9月1 3日,他出生在奥地利的音乐之都——维也纳。勋伯格的父亲是个犹太裔鞋商,父母都没有什么音乐特长。然而勋伯格和弟弟妹妹都颇具天赋。勋伯格8岁开始学习演奏小提琴,1 2岁已经拉得非常出色。但由于早年丧父,家庭贫困,勋伯格无法完成学业,就当了一名银行职员。工作期间,他一直苦学不辍,业余时间还参加了策姆林斯基组织和指挥的乐队。这位指挥发现了勋伯格的才华,预感到他前程远大,于是主动地对他进行系统的音乐教育,教他和声、对位。两个人在教与学中结成了深厚的友谊。日后,当勋伯格成为一代大师时,他把一切都归功于策姆林斯基的帮助。
1901年1 0月,勋伯格和策姆林斯基的妹妹玛蒂尔德结婚。婚后,为筹措日常开销,他们迁居柏林以谋生计。这时,勋伯格遇到了理查·施特劳斯,他带着自己新写的《古列之歌》的一些片段和交响诗《佩利亚斯与梅丽桑德》去请教理查·施特劳斯。勋伯格的作品给这位作曲家留下了极深的印象。他利用自己的地位和影响,为勋伯格争得了“李斯特奖学金”,并为他谋得了在斯特恩音乐学院教作曲的职位。1904年,勋伯格回到维也纳,和策姆林斯基组织了一个“音乐创作者协会”,他们设法请了马勒做他们的名誉主席。一次,马勒听了《升华之夜》的排练,对这部作品大为赞扬,从此他成了勋伯格的一个坚定不渝的支持者。新成立的协会仅存在一个演出季,但就在这点时间内他们成功地演出了马勒、理查·施特劳斯、策姆林斯基和勋伯格的一些 相当大型的作品。
一段时期以来,勋伯格总是感到自己一受到了传统的形式和技巧的抑制,于是便开始抛弃浪漫主义和瓦格纳主义,使自己的音乐从自然音阶的枷锁中摆脱出来,甚至从调性中摆脱出来 。190 7年,他在《第二弦乐四重奏》的第四乐章中第一次采用了无调性;1909年,他又写出了第一个完全摒弃调性的作品《钢琴曲三首》,从此,他的音乐越来越大胆地沿着无调性与不协和的道路迈进,并力求做到质朴、经济、客观,其目的在于把音乐缩减到一些音乐要素,且尽可能摒除主观感觉和个人的自我表现。勋伯格这一时期的主要作品还有《五首管弦乐曲》、音乐话剧《期待》、配乐朗诵《月迷彼埃罗》和配乐戏剧《幸福之手》等。然而,勋伯格的这些新作在维也纳的听众中几乎每次都引起了谴责的风暴。在当时的维也纳,古老的音乐传统似乎并不属于历史和往昔 ;这里到处散布着古典音乐家住过的房屋,古典名曲首次演出的剧院大厅;贝多芬或舒伯特曾用过晚餐的小旅店,海顿和舒伯特童年时代在唱诗班唱过歌的教堂。在这样的环境和音乐气氛中,虽然有马勒在公众中支持着,勋伯格的音乐还是遭到了普遍不理解的厄运。在这些不幸的年代里,勋伯格曾转而学习绘画,第一次世界大战爆发后,年过40的他曾在奥军中服役;困超龄退伍后,又奔波于维也纳和柏林之间,从事教课和讲学,过着清贫的生活。
1923年勋伯格的妻子逝世,他写了一首安魂曲,以表示哀悼;次年续弦,妻子是他的一个学生的姐姐科莉奇。1925年,勋伯格接受邀请,到柏林普鲁±艺术学院负责硕士班的作曲教学。1926年至1933年,勋伯格的生活较为安定,收入有所增加,创作也丰富起来,作品有《第三弦乐四重奏》和《乐队变奏曲》等。
1951年7月13日,勋伯格在洛杉矶逝世。勋伯格对于人类的贡献,在于音乐教学和作曲两个方面。

今日视频:迈克尔·巴伦勃依姆演奏《勋伯格小提琴协奏曲 》OP.36

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
       
         
  Today in music history
On January 10, 1983, in New York, where dvorak had come to teach, he began his symphony "from the new world."
Dvorak landed in the United States of America on September 27, 1892, where he was welcomed by a huge choir of 300 people and an orchestra of up to 80.
Broadway is covered with telephone and telegraph lines, the streets are full of traffic, the lights are on all night, the financial institutions are lined up, the stock exchanges are constantly playing the tragicomedy of desire.All this is in sharp contrast to the leisurely Prague, give dvorak a great shock.
Dvorak is indeed the representative of the folk music school. Dvorak always observes things from the perspective of the national musician.In America he soon took note of the melodies of black music. He wrote, "in the melodies of African americans I have found all that is necessary for a great and noble school of music.These beautiful and rich themes are the products of this land. They are American. They are American folk songs.
Three months after arriving in the United States, dvorak began work on a new symphony on January 10, 1893. He had already written eight symphonies.Friends in the American music industry were eager for dvorak to write a work that embodied the American spirit.Americans, with their short history and lack of cultural roots, urgently needed a foundational work to build their own musical culture.
Today's video: tashi nishimoto conducts the fourth movement of dvorak's ninth symphony "from the new world"

Nishimoto think real Tomomi Nishimoto, Osaka, born in 1970 young learn classical ballet composing music and piano Osaka university after graduation, study in Russia's national institute for the st Petersburg music from Viktor Fedotov and Ilya Moussin 1998, command the Kyoto symphony orchestra debut the Bolshoi symphony orchestra since 2002 (wave tile symphony orchestra) chief conductor, to 2007, the basic events in Russia since June 2007 to Berlin, GermanyIn 2007, he was selected as the global young leader of the world economic forum in davos, Switzerland.

     
         
   
  勋伯格和他的学生们      
  西本智实是光明艺术爱乐乐团的现任艺术总监和首席指挥,也是皇家室内乐团的音乐总监和首席指挥。她也是大阪音乐学院的客座教授。西本茂已被任命为平户市的第一位荣誉大使和大阪的第一位国际文化大使。她是第一位在俄罗斯国家交响乐团、穆索尔斯基国家学术歌剧和芭蕾舞剧院担任指挥的非俄罗斯人,她曾被邀请到世界各地约30个国家担任指挥。从2013年开始,西本每年都被邀请参加梵蒂冈音乐节。第二年,她在梵蒂冈获得了艺术与艺术基金会(Fondazione Pro Musica e Arte Sacra)的荣誉,成为该奖项有史以来最年轻的获奖者。2015年,她以日本国民的身份出现在日本政府的电视广告中,为G7峰会在海外宣传日本。      
  Tomomi Nishimoto is the current Artistic Director and Principal Conductor of the IlluminArt Philharmonic Orchestra, as well as the Music Director and Principal Conductor of the Royal Chamber Orchestra. She also serves as Visiting Professor at Osaka College of Music. Nishimoto has been designated the first Honorary Ambassador for the city of Hirado and the first International Cultural Ambassador for Osaka. She is the first non-Russian to hold conductorial posts with the State Symphony Orchestra of Russia and the Mussorgsky State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre, and she has been invited as a conductor to approximately thirty countries around the world. Beginning in 2013, Nishimoto has been invited on a yearly basis to the Vatican Music Festival. The following year, she received the Honor of Fondazione Pro Musica e Arte Sacra in Vatican, making her the youngest recipient ever of the award. In 2015, she appeared as a Japanese national active on a global basis in television commercials by the Japanese government that promoted Japan overseas for the G7 Summit.      
         
       
  迈克尔·巴伦博伊(Michael Barenboim)      
  Michael Barenboim lets music, in its diverse and enduring ways, speak for itself through his violin. His performances are praised by the critics as “stunning”, “exciting, “utterly persuasive and breathtaking.” Committed to the core classical and romantic repertoire, he is deeply invested and specially recognized for his performances of the 20th century and contemporary repertoire.      
  迈克尔·巴伦博伊姆让音乐以其多样而持久的方式,通过他的小提琴为自己代言。他的表演被评论家称赞为“惊人的”,“令人兴奋的”,完全有说服力和惊人的。“他致力于古典和浪漫的核心曲目,他对20世纪和当代曲目的表演有着深厚的感情和特别的认可。      
         
         
 

【小泽征尔】勋伯格 升华之夜Op.4

     
         
         
 

【中字】讲解勋伯格《升华之夜》Schoenberg Verklärte Nacht Lecture 1

     
         
 
 
 
     
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